bi·op·sy (biŽop-se) [ bio-+ Gr. opsis vision ]
the removal and examination, usually microscopic, of tissue from the living body, performed to establish precise diagnosis.
aspiration biopsy, biopsy in which the tissue is obtained by the application of suction through a needle attached to a syringe.
bite biopsy, the instrumental removal of a fragment of tissue.
blastomere biopsy, a technique for preimplantation genetic diagnosis, in which a blastomere is removed from a 6- or 8-cell embryo and tested for genetic abnormalities.
brush biopsy, biopsy in which the sample is obtained by manipulating tiny brushes against it, such as through a bronchoscope.
chorionic villus biopsy, see under sampling.
cone biopsy, biopsy in which an inverted cone of tissue is excised, as from the uterine cervix.
core biopsy, core needle biopsy, needle biopsy with a large hollow needle that extracts a core of tissue; used in diagnosis of prostate and kidney conditions.
cytologic biopsy, removal of cells for pathological examination; any of various methods can be used, such as brush biopsy or irrigation of hollow viscera.
endomyocardial biopsy, sampling of the endomyocardial tissue with a bioptome inserted percutaneously and advanced via the femoral or internal jugular vein to the right heart or via the femoral artery to the left heart; used to assess cardiac transplant rejection or anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity, and sometimes in diagnosing myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, or infiltrative diseases.
endoscopic biopsy, removal of tissue by appropriate instruments introduced through an endoscope.
excisional biopsy, biopsy of tissue removed by excision; biopsy of an entire lesion, including a significant margin of contiguous normal-appearing tissue. Cf. lumpectomy.
exploratory biopsy, exploration combined with biopsy to determine the type and extent of neoplasms, both deep and superficial.
fine-needle aspiration biopsy, aspiration biopsy using a fine needle; for superficial tissue such as the thyroid, breast, or prostate the needle is unguided but for deep tissue it must be guided radiologically.
incisional biopsy, biopsy of a selected portion of a lesion and, if possible, of adjacent normal-appearing tissue.
laparoscopic biopsy, biopsy of the abdominal organs using instruments introduced through a laparoscope for the removal of tissue.
needle biopsy, biopsy in which tissue from deep within the body is obtained by insertion through the skin of a specifically designed needle that detaches tissue with an inner needle so that the tissue can be brought to the surface in the needle's lumen. Called also percutaneous b.
optical biopsy, any technique that uses the interaction of light and tissue to provide information about the tissue.
percutaneous biopsy, needle b.
punch biopsy, biopsy in which tissue is obtained by a specifically designed round knife biopsy punch.
sentinel node biopsy, biopsy of a sentinel node to assess for malignancy; if it does not contain malignant cells, this usually eliminates the need for removal of more distal nodes. Called also intraoperative lymphatic mapping.
shave biopsy, biopsy of a skin lesion in which the sample is excised using a cut parallel to the surface of the surrounding skin.
stereotactic biopsy, biopsy of the brain using a stereotactic technique to locate the biopsy site.
sternal biopsy, biopsy of bone marrow of the sternum; done by puncture or trephination.
surface biopsy, biopsy of cells scraped from the surface of suspicious or obvious lesions, usually done in examination for cancer of the cervix.
transbronchial lung biopsy, biopsy of the lung through a bronchofiberscope (or rigid bronchoscope in small children) positioned under fluoroscopic guidance.