5-FU Fluorouracil (antineoplastic agent for cancer) //  topical cream for actinic keratoses  
A&P auscultation and percussion  
A&O alert and oriented  
A/G albumin/globulin ratio  
A-a gradient Alveolar-arterial gradient  
AAA abdominal aortic aneurysm  
AAD antibiotic-associated diarrhea  
AAO alert, awake, and oriented  
AAS acute abdominal series  
AB abortion   or   abortus  
Abd abdomen  
ABG arterial blood gases  
ABT ankle-brachial index  
ABVD adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine  
AC abdominal circumference     //       before eating  
AC joint acromioclavicular joint  
ACBE air contrast barium enema  
ACDF anterior cervical discectomy and fusion  
ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme  
Ach Acetylcholine  
ACIOL anterior chamber intraocular lens  
ACL anterior cruciate ligament  
ACLS advanced cardiac life support  
ACMI American College of Medical Informatics  
ACML atypical chronic myeloid leukemia  
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone  
ad lib as much as needed  
ADA American Diabetes Association  
ADH antidiuretic hormone   (see vasopressin)
ADL activities of daily living  
ADR adverse drug reaction  //  acute dystonic reaction  
AED antiepileptic drug  
AF atrial fibrillation   //   afebrile  
AFB acid fast bacillus        //     aortofemoral bypass  
AFI amniotic fluid index  
a-fib atrial fibrillation  
AFO ankle-foot orthosis  (orthotic)
AFP Alpha-fetoprotein  
Ag antigen  
AI aortic insufficiency  
AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome  
AKA above-knee amputation  
ALL acute lymphocytic leukemia  or   acute lymphoblastic leukemia  
ALP Alkaline phosphatase  
ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  
ALT alanine amniotransferase  
AMA against medical advice  
amb ambulate  
AML acute myelogenous leukemia  
ANA antinuclear antibody  
ANS autonomic nervous system  
AOB alcohol on breath  
AODM adult onset diabetes mellitus  
AP anteroposterior   //       abdominal--perineal  
ap/pa anteroposterior/posteroanterior  
APTT activated partial thromboplastin time  
ARDS adult respiratory distress syndrome    (noncardiogenic pulmonary edema)
ARF acute renal failure  
AS aortic stenosis  
ASA acetylsalicyclic acid  
ASAP as soon as possible  
ASCAD arteriosclerotic  
ASCVD atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease  
ASD atrial septal defect  
ASE allosteric enzyme  
ASHD atherosclerotic heart disease  
ASR alderosterone secretion rate (electrolyte metabolism)  
AST asparate amniotransferase  
ATP adenosine 5-triphosphate  
AUA American Urological Association  
A-V arteriovenous  
AV   atrioventricular           
AVM arteriovenous malformation  
A-VO2 arteriovenous oxygen  
AVP atriovenous pulse  
AVRT atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia  
AZT azidothymidine  
b.i.d. twice a day  
BAER brainstem auditory-evoked response  
BBB bundle branch block  
BCAA branched chain amnio acids  
BCG bacille bilie de Calmette-Guerin  
BE barium enema  
BEE basal energy expenditure  
Beta HCG human chorionic gonadotropin  
BIPAP bilevel positive airway pressure  
BKA below-knee amputation  
BM bowel movement      //      bone marrow  
BMP basic metabolic panel       //       beats per minute  
BMR basal metabolic rate  
BOM bilateral otitis media  
BP blood pressure  
BPD biparietal diameter  
BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy  
BPP biophysical profile  
BRBPR bright red blood per rectum  
BRP bathroom priviledges  
BS breath sounds     //     bowel sounds  
BSO bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy  
BSS+ balanced salt solution  
BT bleeding time  
BTE behind the ear  
BUN blood urea nitrogen  
BW body weight  
BX biopsy  
c with  
C IN D&C curet  or curettage   (cleansing of surface)  
C&P compensation and pension  
C&S culture and sensitivity  
C/O complaining of  
C/O complaining of  
C1 (#) cervical vertebra  
Ca calcium  
CA carcinoma  
CAA crystalline amnio acids  
CABG coronary artery bypass grafting  
CAD coronary artery disease  
CAT computerized axial tomography  
CAV constant angular velocity       //      cyclophosphamide doxorubicin vincristine  
CBC complete blood count  
CBG capillary blood gas  
CCE clubbing, cyanosis, or edema  
CCK cholecystokinin  
CCNU chloroethylcyclohexylnitrosourea  
CCU coronary care unit  
CCV critical closing volume  
CDC Center for Disease Control  
CEA carcinoembryonic antigen  
CF cystic fibrosis  
CGL chronic granulocytic leukemia  
CHF congestive heart failure  
CHO carbohydrate  
CHOP cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunomycin, Oncovin (vincristine), and prednisone  
CI chloride         //           cardiac index  
CIE countercurrent immuneoelectrophoresis  
CK creatinine kinase  
CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia  
cm centimeter  
CMC carpometacarpal joint  
CML chronic myelogenous leukemia  
CMV cytomegalovirus  
CN cranial nerves  
CNS central nervous system  
CO cardiac output  
CO2 carbon dioxide  
COLD chronic obstructive lung disease  
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  
CP chest pain  
CPAP continuous positive airway pressure  
CPD cephalopelvic disproportion  
CPK creatinine phosphokinase  
CPK-MB myocardial band of enzymes of creatinine phosphokinase  
CPM continuous passive motion  
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation  
CRCL creatinine clearance  
CRF chronic renal failure  
CRNA certified registered nurse anesthetist  
CRP C-reactive protein  
C-SECTION cesarean section  
CSF cerebrospinal fluid  
C-SPINE cervical spine  
CT computed tomography  
CTR carpal tunnel release  
CTS carpal tunnel syndrome  
CV cardiovascular  
CVA costovertebral angle         //       cerebrovascular accident  
CVAT costovertebral angle tenderness  
CVP central venous pressure  
CXR chest x-ray  
D&C dilation and curettage  
D5W 5% Dextrose in water  
DAT direct antiglobulin test        //    diet as tolerated  
DAW dispense as written  
DC discontinued  or  discharged  
DCR dacryocystorhinostomy  
DDD degenerative disc disease  
DDS doctor of dental surgery  
DDT dead dangly testicles  
DDx differential diagnosis  
DI diabetes insipidus  
DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation  
DIP distal interphalangeal joint  
DISH diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis  
DJD degenerative joint disease  
DKA diabetic ketoacidosis  
dL  deciliter  
DM diabetes mellitus  
DMD doctor of dental medicine  
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid  
DNR do not resuscitate  
DO doctor of osteopathy  
DOA dead on arrival  
DOB date of birth  
DOE dyspnea on exertion  
DPL diagnostic peritoneal lavage  
DPT diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus  
DT delirium tremens  
DTP distal interphalangeal joint  
DTR deep tendon reflex  
DVT deep venous thrombosis  
DVT/PE deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism  
DX diagnosis  
EAA essential amnio acids  
EBV Epstein-Barre virus  
ECASA enteric-coated acetysalicylic acid  
ECC endocervical curettings  
ECG electrocardiogram   
ECHO echocardiogram  
ECT electroconvulsive therapy  
EEG electroencephalogram  
EF ejection fraction  
EFAD essential fatty acid deficiency  
EGBUS external genitalia, Bartholin, urethral, Skene  
EGD esophagogastroduodenoscopy  
EKG electrocardiography  
EMG electromyogram  
EMV eyes, motor, verbal response (Glasgow coma scale)  
ENT ears, nose, and throat  
EOM extraocular muscles  
EOMI extraocular movement intact  
ER emergency room  
ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography  
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate  
ESWL extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy  
ET   endotracheal  
ETOH ethyle alcohol (ethanol)  
ETT endotracheal tube  
EUA examination under anesthesia  
F Fahrenheit  
Fab fragment antigen binding  
FBS fasting blood sugar  
FCD fibrocystic disease  
FDA Food and Drug Administration  
fem-fem femoral-femoral  
fem-pop femoral-popliteal  
FEV forced expiratory volume  
FFP fresh frozen plasma  
FL femur length  
FRC functional residual capacity  
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone  
FTA-ABS fluroescent treponemal antibody absorption  
FTT failure to thrive  
FU followup  
FUO fever of unknown origin  
FVC forced vital capacity  
Fx fracture  
G gravida  
GC gonorrhea culture         //         gonorrhea/chlamydia  
G-CSF granulocyte colony stimulating factor  
GE gastroesophageal  or  gastroenterology  
GER gastroesophageal reflux  
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease  
GETT general by endotracheal tube  
GFR glomerular filtration rate  
GH growth hormone  
GI gastrointestinal  
gm gram  
gr grain  
GSW gun shot wound  
gt  or gtt drops  
GTT glucose tolerance test  
GU genitourinary  
GXT headache  
GYN gynecology  
H&E hemorrhage and exudate                 /ONCOLOGY/ hematoxylin and eosin (stain)  
H&H   or H/H hemoglobin and hematocrit              //     henderson-hasselbach equation  
H&P History and physical  
h.s. at bedtime  
HA headache  
HAA hepatitis B surface antigen  
HAV hepatitis A virus  
HBIG Hepatitis B immune Globulin  
HBP high blood sugar  
HC head circumference  
HCG human chorinic gonadotropin  
HCO3 bicarbonate or  bicarb  
HCT hematocrit  
HCTZ Hydrochlorothiazide  
HDL high density lipoprotein  
HEENT head, eyes, ears, nose, throat  
Hgb hemoglobin  
HIDA Hydroxy Iminodiacetic Acid  
HIV human immunodeficiency virus  
HJR hepatojugular reflux  
HLA histocompatibility locus antigen  
HMD hyaline membrane disease  
HNP herniated nucleus pulposus  
HO history of   
HOB head of bed  
HPF high power field  
HPV human papilloma virus  
hr heart rate  
HSM hepatosplenomegaly  
HSV herpes simplex virus  
HTLV-III human lymphotropic virus, type III (AIDS agent, HIV)  
HTN hypertension  
Hx history  
I&D incision and drainage  
I&O intake and output  
i.m. internal medicine  
I/A irrigation/aspiration  
IAC internal auditory canal  
IAE in any event  
ICS intercostal space  
ICSH interstitial cell stimulating hormone  
ICU intensive care unit  
ID infectious disease        //      identification  
IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus  
IG OR Ig immunoglobin  
IHSS idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis  
IJ internal jugular  
ILD interstitial lung disease  
IM intramuscular            //           intramedullary   
IMA inferior mesenteric artery  
IMV intermittent mandatory ventilation  
IND investigational new drug  /  independent new drug  
INF intravenous nutritional fluid  
IOL intraocular lens  
IP interphalangeal  
IPPB intermittent positive pressure breathing  
IRBBB incomplete right bundle branch block  
IRDM insulin resistant diabetes mellitus  
IT iliotibial           //             intrathecal  
ITP idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura  
IU intrauterine  
IUD intrauterine devices  
IUGR intrauterine growth retardation  
IUPC intrauterine pressure catheter  
IV intravenous  
IVC inferior vena cava         //        intravenous cholangiogram  
IVH intraventricular hemorrhage  
IVP intravenous pyelogram  
JODM juvenile onset diabetes mellitus  
JVD jugular venous distention  
JVP jugular venous pressure  
K potassium  
KCI potassium chloride  
KOH potassium hydroxide  
KOR keep open rate  
KUB kidneys, ureters, bladder  
KVO keep vein open  
K-wire Kirschner wire  
L# lumbar vertebra  
L&D labor and delivery  
L/S lecithin-sphingomyelin  
LAD left anterior descending       //       left axis deviation  
LAE left atrial enlargement  
LAHB left anterior hemiblock  
LAO left anterior oblique  
LAO/RPO left anterior oblique   //   right posterior oblique  
LAP left atrial pressure      //       leukocyte alkaline phosphatase  
LBBB left bundle branch block  
LCA left coronary artery  
LCL lateral collateral ligament  
LDH lactate dehydrogenase  
LDP lateral decubitus position  
LE lupus erythematosus  
LFT liver function test  
LGA large for gestational age  
LH luteinizing hormone  
LIH left inguinal hernia  
LIMA left internal mammary artery  
LLL left lower lobe  
LMP last menstrual period  
LNMP last normal menstrual period  
LOC loss of consciousness  
LP lumbar puncture  
LPN licensed practical nurse  
LR lactated Ringer's  
LS lumbosacral spine  
LSPG lecithin-sphingomyelin phosphatidylglycerol  
L-SPINE lumbar spine  
LUL left upper lobe  
LUQ left upper quadrant  
LV left ventricle  
LVEDP left ventricle end dialostic pressure  
LVH left ventricular hypertrophy  
M.D. Medical Doctor  
MAC mycobacterium avium complex  
mag magnesium  
MAI mycobacterium avium-intracellulare  
MAO monoamine oxidase  
MAP mean arterial pressure  
MAST medical antishock trousers  
MBT maternal blood type  
MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin          //           major histocompatibility complex       
MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration      
MCL medial collateral ligament  
MCP metacarpophalangeal joint  
MCV mean corpuscular volume          
MDI metered dose inhaler  
mEq milliequivalent  
mg milligram  
MI myocardial infarction     //    mitral insufficiency  
MIA mark interface application      //     medical insurance agency  
MIP maximum inspiratory pressure  
mL milliliter  
MLE midline episiotomy  
mm millimeter  
MMEF maximal mid expiratory flow  
mmHG millimeters of mercury  
MMK  Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz  
mmol millimole  
MMPI Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory  
MMR measles, mumps, and rubella  
MOM milk of magnesia  
MOPP mustargen, oncovin, procarbazine, prednisone  
MPDO microscopic performed, description omitted  
MRI magnetic resonance imaging  
MRM modified radical mastectomy  
MROU medial rectus, both eyes  
MRSA Methicillin resistant staph aureus  
MS multiple sclerosis    //      mitral stenosis       //     morphine sulfate  
MSAFP maternal serum Alpha-fetoprotein  
MSSA methicillin-esnsitive staph aureus  
MTP metatarsophalangeal joint  
MUGA multiple gated acquisition  
MV mega volt  
mv millivolt  
MVA motor vehichle accident  
MVI multivitamin injection  
MVP mitral valve prolapse  
MVV maximum voluntary ventilation  
Na sodium  
NAD no acute distention           //           no active disease  
NADH nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-hydrogen  
NAS no added salt  
NC/AT normocephalic/atraumatic  
NCV nerve conductive velocity  
NED no evidence of disease  
NG nasogastric  
ng nanogram  
NICU neonatal intensive care unit  
NIDDM non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus  
NIH National institute of health  
NK Natural killer cells  
NKA no known allergies  
nm nanometer  
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance  
NOS not otherwise specified  
NPO nil per os   or   nothing by mouth     
NRM no regular medications  
NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug  
NSR normal sinus rhythm  
NSVD normal spontaneous vaginal delivery  
NT nasotracheal  
O&P ova and parasites  
O.D. right eye            //          ocular dexter      //   overdose  
O.S. left eye             //      
O2 oxygen  
OA occiput anterior  
OB obstetrics  
OB/GYN obstetrics and gynecology  
OBMT outpatient-based medical team  
OCG oral cholecystogram  
OCP oral contraceptive pill  
OM otitis media  
OMB obtuse marginal branch  
OM-II obtuse marginal II  
OOB out of bed  
OPV oral polio vaccine  
OR operating room  
ORIF open reduction, internal fixation  
Os orifice  
OSHA occupational safety and health administration  
OT occupational therapy  
OU both eyes  
OXYGEN SATURATION determined by using pulse oximeter mid to high 90s  
P para  
P&A percussion and auscultation  
P&PD percussion and postural drainage  
p.o. by mouth orally  
p.r.n. as needed      //       pro re nata  
PA physicians assistant      //    posteroanterior  
PAC premature atrial contraction  
PACU post-anesthesia care unit  
PaO2 partial pressure of arterial oxygen  
PAO2 alveolar oxygen  
PAP pulmonary artery pressure  
PAT paroxysmal atrial tachycardia  
PC after eating  
PCL posterior cruciate ligament  
Pco2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide  
PCWP pulmonary capillary wedge pressure  
PDA patent ductus arteriosus        //      posterior descending artery  
PDR physicians drug reference  
PE pulmonary embolism    //      pressure equalized   //    pleural effusion    //     PHYSICAL EXAMINATION:  
PEEP positive end expiratory pressure  
PEG pneumoencephalogram   /     polyethylene glycol     /     percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy  
PERRLA pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation  
PET positron emission tomography  
PFT pulmonary function test  
PG phosphatidylglycerol  
pg picogram  
Ph  --- pH acid/alkaline balance    //      Hydrogen ion concentration (Power of H+)  
Ph1 Philadelphia chromosome  
PhD doctor of philosophy  
Phen-fen phentermine-fenfluramine  
PI post injection  //   personal injury   //   present illness   //  penile implant    //  pulmonary insufficiency  
PI pulmonic insufficiency disease  
PICC peripherally inserted central catheter  
PICU pediatric intensive care unit  
PID pelvic inflammatory disease  
PIP proximal interphalangeal  
PK pyruvate kinase  
PKD polycystic kidney disease  
PKP penetrating keratoplasty  
PKU phenylketonuria  
PMI point of maximal impulse  
PMN polymorphonuclear leukocyte  (neutrophil)  
PMS premenstrual syndrome  
PNAS prenatal antibody screen  
PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea  
PO2 partial pressure of oxygen  
POD postoperative day  
POEMS polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, skin changes.  
PP postprandial  //   pulsus paradoxus  
PPD purified protein derivative     (of tuberculosis)  
PPD purified protein derivative  
PR by rectum  
PRBC packed red blood cells  
PRL Prolactin  
PSA prostate specific antigens  
PSV pressure supported ventilation  
Pt physical therapy  
PT prothrombin time  
PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty  
PTH parathyroid hormone  
PTHC percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram  
PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder  
PTT partial thromboplastin time  
PTU propylthioluracil  
PUD peptic ulcer disease  
PUVA psoralen ultraviolet light of A wave length  
PVC premature ventricular contraction  
PVD peripheral vascular disease  
PVR pulmonary vascular resistance  
q.d. quaque die              //            every day  
q.h. quaque hora           //             every hour  
q.i.d. quarter in die           //            4 times per day  
q.o.d every other day  
q.s. quantum satis           //      as much as needed  
QNS quantity not sufficient  
Qs/Qt shunt fraction  
Qt total cardiac output  
R/O rule out  
RA rheumatoid arhritis     //    right atrium  
RA right atrium  
rad radian  
RAD right anterior descending   //    reactive airway disease   //    right atrial axis deviation  
RAD right atrial axis deviation  
RAE right atrial enlargement  
RAO right anterior oblique  
RAP right atrial pressure  
RBBB right bundle branch block  
RBP retinol-binding protein  
RCA right coronary artery  
rcb red blood cell  
RDA recommended daily allowance  
RDW red cell distributuion width  
REM rapid eye movement  
RES reticuloendothelial system  
RFLP restriction fragment length polymorphism  
Rh rhesus blood group  
RHD theumatic heart disease  
RIA radioimmunoassay  
RIH right inguinal hernia  
RLL right lower lobe   (of lung)  
RLQ right lower quadrant  (of abdomen)  
RML right middle lobe  
RNA ribonucleic acid  
ROM range of motion     //     rupture of membranes  
ROM rupture of membranes  
RPG retrograde pyelogram  
RPR rapid plasma reagin  
RQ respiratory quotient  
rrr regular rate and rhythm  
RSD reflex sympathetic dystrophy  
RSV respiratory syncytical virus   //    Rous-sarcoma virus  
rt respiratory  
RT radiation therapy  
RTA renal tubular acidosis  
rtc return to clinic  
RU resin uptake  
RUG retrograde urethogram  
RUL right upper lobe  (of lung)  
RUQ right upper quadrant    (of abdomen)  
RV right ventricle   //   residual volume  
RVG right ventricle grafting  
RVH right ventricular hypertrophy  
Rx treatment  
s without  
S&E sugar and acetone  
SA sinoatrial  
SAA synthetic amino acid  
SAB spontaneous abortion  
SaO2 oxygen saturation of arterial blood  
Sat. saturation  
SBE subacute bacterial endocarditis  
SBFT small bowel follow through  
SBS short bowel syndrome  
sc subcutaneous  
SCD sequential compression device (stockings)  
SCr serum creatinine  
SED RATE erythrocyte sedimentation rate  
SEM systolic ejection murmur  
SFA superficial femoral artery  
SG Swan-Ganz  
SGA small for gestational age  
SGGT serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase  
SGOT serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase  
SGPT serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase  
SI sacroiliac joint  
SIADH syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone  
SICU surgical intensive care unit  
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome  
sig write on label  
SIMV spontaneous intermittent mandatory ventilation  
sl sublingual  
SLE systemic lupus erythematosus  
SMA sequential multichannel autoanalyzer  
SMA superior mesenteric artery  
SMO slips made out  
SMV superior mesenteric vein  
SOB shortness of breath  
SPECT single photon emission computed tomography  
SQ subcutaneous  
SSEP somatosensory evoked potentials  
STAT statim  ----   immediately  
STD sexually transmitted disease  
STT spinothalamic tract  
subq subcutaneous  
SVC superior vena cava  
SVD spontaneous vaginal delivery  
SWOG southwest oncology group  
Sx symptoms  
T# thoracic vertebra  
T&A tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy  
T&C type and hold  
T&H type and hold  
t.i.d. 3 times a day   or     ter in die  
T.max maximum temperature  
TAB therapeutic abortion  
TAH total abdominal hysterectomy  
TB tuberculosis  
TBG total binding globulin  
TBV total blood volume  
Td Tetanus-diptheria vaccine  
TE therapeutic exercises   //    therapeutically equivalent  
TED thromboembolic disease  
TEN toxic epidermal necrolysis  
THA total hip arthroplasty  
TIA transient ischemic attack  
TIBC total iron binding capacity  
TIB-FIB tibial-fibular  
TIG tetanus immune globulin  
TKA total knee arthroplasty  
TKO to keep open  
TLC total lung capacity  
TM tympanic membrane  
TMJ temporomandibular joint  
TNM tumor, node, metastasis  
TNTC too numerous to count  
TO tracheosphogeal  
TOPV trivalent oral polio vaccine  
TP total protein  
TPA tissue plasminogen activator  
TPN total parenteral nutrition  
TSH thyroid stimulating hormone  
T-spine thoracic spine  
TT thrombin time  
TTO transtracheal oxygen  
TTP thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura  
TU tuberculin units  
TUR transurethral resection of prostate  
TURBT transurethral resection of the bladder tumor  
TURP transurethral resection of the prostate  
TV tidal volume  
TVH total vaginal hysterectomy  
tw twice a week  
Tx transplant  
UA urinalysis  
UAC umbilical artery catheter  
UAO upper airway obstruction  
UBD universal blood donor  
UC ulcerative colitis  
UFH unfractionated heparin  
UGI upper gastrointestinal  
UPPP uvulopalatopharyngoplasty  
URI upper respiratory infection  
URJ ureteropelvic junction  
URQ upper right quadrant  
US ultrasound  
UTI urinary tract infection  
UUN urinary urea nitrogen  
UVA ultraviolet A light  
UVJ ureterovesical junction  
VAD venous access device  
VBAC vaginal birth after cesarean  
VC vital capacity  
VCT venous clotting time  
VCUG voiding cystourethrogram  
VDRL venerereal disease research laboratory  
VMA vanillymadelic acid  
VP ventriculoperitoneal  
VQ ventilation - perfusion  
VRE vancomycin-resistant enterococcus  
VSD ventricular septal defect  
VSS vital signs stable  
VT ventricular tachycardia  
V-tach ventricular tachycardia  
VV varicose veins  
VW vessel wall  
VWD von Willebrand's disease  
VZV varicella zoster virus  
w/u workup  
WBC white blodd cell  
WBC white blood cell  
WBCs white blood cells  
WBR whole body radiation  
wd well-developed  
wf white female  
WHO World health organization  
WIA wounded in action  
wid widow  
wm white male  
wn well-nourished  
wnl within normal limits  
wo weeks old  
wop without pain  
WPW Wolf-Parkinson-White  
x2d times 2 days  
XMM xeromammography  
XP exphoria   (unusual  -- ophthalmology)  
XRT x-ray therapy  
year to date  year-to-date  
YLC youngest living child  
YO years old  
yr year  
ytd year-to-date  
ZDV zidovudine  
ZE Zollinger-Ellison  
Z-ESR zeta erythrocyte sedimentation rate  
Zn zinc  
ZnO zinc oxide  
ZSB zero stools since birth  


dips/o thirst
dactyl/o finger or toe
colp/o hollow / vagina
chori/o fetal covering
oste/o bone
bio life
dys abnormal / difficult
sondyl/o vertebra
chondr/o cartilage
amni/o sac around fetus
rect/o rectum
my/o muscle
hyper excessive / increased
hypo low / deficiency
cry/o cold
brady slow
men/o relationship to menses - menstruation
herni/o hernia
hem/o blood
trache/o trachea
lith/o stone
nephr/o kidney
laryng/o larynx - throat
splen/o spleen
a, an no, without
ab- away from
ad- toward
ante, pre-, pro- before
anti, contra against
bi, di two
de down from / removing
dia thru, between, across
granul/o grain/particle
irid/o colored circle / iris
lapar/o flank / abdominal wall
orchi/o testicle
onc/o bulk / tumor
orth/o straight
phot/o light
phren/o mind / diaphragm
pneum/o air / breathing / lung
proct/o rectum / anus
pseud/o FALSE
pyel/o trough / renal pelvis
salping/o tube
somat/o body
ten/o tendon / tight band
thorac/o chest
vag/o vagus nerve
vas/o vessel / ductus deferens
chol/e bile
cholecyst/o gallbladder
clavicul/o clavicle
coccyg/o coccyx
col/o colon
cost/o rib
crani/o cranium / skull
crypt/o hide or conceal
cutane/o skin
cyan/o blue
cyst/o cyst, bladder
gnath/o jaw
cubit/o elbow
pepsia digestion
manual done with hands
cardia heart
ecto, ex-, exo- outside / without / away from
en-, endo-, em-, eso- inside
epi above / on
eu good / normal
hemi-, semi- half / partly
breath hale
metri uterus
natal birth
esthesi/o, esthesia sensation / feeling
pnea breath
sub beneath, below normal, under
in not
infra beneath
inter between
intra within / inside of
macro large
mal bad
meso middle or moderate
micro small
multi-, poly- many / much / excessive
mono, uni one
nulli none
para near, beside, resembling, abnormal
per through, by, completely
peri- around, near
post after, behind
primi- first
cyt/o cell
dent/i, dent/o teeth
derm/a, dermat/o skin
dextr/o right
hexa six
disc/o disc/ disk
dist/o far / distant from
dors/o directed toward / on the back
duoden/o duodenum
ech/o sound
electr/o electricity
encephal/o brain
enter/o intestine
erythr/o red
esophag/o esophagus
femor/o femur
fet/o fetus
fibr/o fiber
fibul/o fibula
front/o front / forhead
galact/o milk
gastr/o stomach
genit/o genitals
ger/o old
glomerul/o glomerulus
gloss/o tongue
glyc/o sugar / sweet
brachi/o ar,
re back, again
retro backward, behind
super more than normal, excessive
supra above, over
sy(n)(m) together, union
tachy fast