A localised collection of pus

Acute Renal Failure

A condition in which the kidneys suddenly stop working


A malignant tumour that develops from the glandular elements of an organ


A benign tumour made up of glandular tissue


Next to

Adjuvant therapy

An additional treatment to try to prevent recurrence


Surgical removal of the adrenal gland

Adrenal Gland

One of a pair of glandular organs situated above the kidneys which secrete hormones that control heart rate and blood pressure. It also produces most of the body’s steroids


The study of the causes of a disease


An abnormal amount of albumin (a protein) in the urine


A drug intended to relieve pain


The male sex hormones


A benign kidney tumour


A substance that prevents a chemical process called oxidation. Oxidation may cause genetic mutations. Antioxidants may prevent cancer forming


Programmed cell death when DNA is damaged


Acute Tubular Necrosis


Not usual


Without symptoms


Absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate

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Inflammation of the glans penis


This is not malignant. A benign tumour does not invade or metastasise


On both sides of the body


A sample of tissue taken for histological diagnostic purposes


The hollow organ in the lower abdomen for the storage of urine

Bladder Augmentation

An operation that enlarges the bladder using the intestine

Bladder Capacity

The maximum volume of the bladder

Bladder Carcinoma

The malignant growth arising from the lining of the bladder

Bladder Extrophy

A congenital condition where the bladder is located on the anterior abdominal wall


Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy or Hyperplasia


A type of radiotherapy utilising tiny radioactive seeds implanted into the prostate


Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans – this is a chronic skin lesion affecting the foreskin, glans penis and the urethra

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Calcium Oxalate

This compound is the most common constituent of kidney stones


A Stone


The innermost part of the renal pelvis


The abnormal growth of cells that have the capability of invading and spreading


A substance that causes cancer


The insertion of a catheter into the bladder


Cancer that responds to chemotherapy


Cancer that does not respond to chemotherapy


The use of anti cancer (cytotoxic) drugs to treat cancer


The abnormal downward bend of the penis


The surgical removal of the foreskin


Carcinoma In Situ

Conformal Radiotherapy

A type of xray treatment that uses a computer to target the tumour

Corpora cavernosa

The two cylinders of erectile tissue situated in the penis


The outer portion of an organ


A surgical procedure destroying tissue by freezing

CT Scan

Computerised Tomography Scan


The surgical removal of the bladder


Inflammation of the bladder


A prolapse involving the bladder


An Xray of the bladder following the injection of contrast material


The optical instrument used to examine the inside of the bladder.  Flexible and rigid are two types


The endoscopic examination of the bladder


The study of cells used to identify malignant cells

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Detrusor Muscle

The muscle of the bladder


A technique to remove waste products from the blood


A disease identified by symptoms signs and special investigations


A process by which cells mature in order to perform what they are meant to.  Cancer cells are less differentiated


A procedure to widen


Anatomically farthest from the centre


An abnormal outpouching arising from a hollow organ


Deoxyribonucleic acid


Digital Rectal Examination


Painful sexual intercourse


Painful voiding of urine

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External Beam RadioTherapy


Used to describe something in an abnormal position

Ectopic kidney 

An abnormally sited kidney


Erectile Dysfunction




The issue of semen at orgasm

Ejaculatory Duct 

The tube through which sperms reach the urethra

Ejaculatory Fluid



A procedure in which a blood vessel is blocked


Relates to glands that secrete hormones


The lining of the womb (uterus)


A protein that increases the rate of chemical reactions in living cells


A vaginal prolapse involving bowel


Involuntary voiding of urine at night during sleep


A coiled tube at the back of the testis conveying sperm from the testis to the vas deferens


Inflammation of the epididymis

Epididymo orchitis

Inflammation of the testis and epididymis


A condition where the urethra opens onto the topside of the penis


The surface layer of cells


Redness of the skin


Extracorporeal ShockWave Lithotripsy


Surgical removal of


The elimination of solid waste from the body


The leakage of fluids into the surrounding tissues


Outside the bladder

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Fallopian Tube

The tube on each side of the uterus which transports the egg from the ovary to the uterus

False negative

A negative result when in reality it is positive in nature

False positive 

A positive result when in reality it is negative in nature


Scarring in the tissues


An abnormal opening between two epithelial surfaces

Five year survival

The percentage of people with a cancer expected to live for 5 years or more after diagnosis

Foley Catheter

A hollow tube with a balloon at one end used to drain the bladder


The skin that covers the glans penis

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Germ cell 

The reproductive cell of the body (ova or sperms)

Gerota’s Fascia

The capsule of the kidney

Glans penis 

The head of the penis

Gleason score  

A histological grading system for prostate cancer


An inflammatory condition of the kidney


A mass of blood vessels in a kidney nephron where the blood is filtered


A sexually transmitted disease caused by the gonococcus bacterium


International unit of radiation.  1 Gray = 100 rads


A surgeon specialising in treating female health


A tender enlargement of the male breast

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A collection of blood in the tissues


The presence of blood in the seminal fluid


The presence of blood in the urine


The protrusion of a viscus or part of a viscus through an abnormal opening


Delay in starting Micturition


The study of cells and tissues under the microscope


Cells or tissue that looks the same throughout


A chemical substance released by endocrine glands that control various body functions

Horseshoe kidney 

A rare condition where the lower poles of the two kidneys are fused together to form a “U” shape


Human Papilloma Virus


A collection of fluid around the testicle


Too much growth of cells or tissue

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A treatment that boosts the body’s own immune system to treat cancer


The inability to achieve or maintain an erection


The number of newly diagnosed cases in a specific time


The inability to control urine


A naturally produced substance released in response to a viral infection. It is used in immunotherapy to boost the immune system


Inside the bladder

Isotope Bone Scan

Nuclear imaging of the skeleton using a gamma camera


IntraVenous Urogram is an Xray using contrast material to examine the urinary tract (kidneys ureters and bladder)

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An Xray that includes the Kidney, Ureter and Bladder

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Lamina propria  

A layer of the bladder between the epithelial lining and the bladder muscle


A telescope that is inserted into the abdomen


Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation


Leuteinizing hormone


Leuteinizing hormone releasing hormone

Lifetime risk

The probability of developing or dying from a cancer in the course of one’s lifespan


The endoscopic disintegration and removal of a bladder stone


The disintegration of a stone


Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes

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The inner portion of an organ


The start of menstruation


The cessation of menstruation


The secondary tumour in a distant part of the body from the primary tumour


The act of passing urine


The number of deaths during a specific time


Magnetic Resonant Imaging scans which utilise magnets and radio waves

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The death of living tissue


A new bladder constructed out of a piece of bowel


A new growth of cells usually malignant


A filtration unit within the kidney


A condition whereby a patient rises from sleep to urinate

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Female hormone produced by the ovary


The study of cancer


Surgical removal of the ovaries


The surgical removal of the testicle


The female organ of reproduction

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The number of cases alive at any given time


Female hormone produced by the ovary


The prediction of the cause of a disease


A gland situated beneath the bladder which secretes fructose sugar to feed sperms

Prostate Carcinoma

The malignant growth arising from the glands of the prostate


Surgical removal of the prostate


An artificial implant to replace a part of the body


Inflammation of the prostate


Anatomically nearest to the centre


Prostate Specific Antigen is a marker for prostate cancer

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The basic unit of radiation (Radiation Absorbed Dose)


The treatment of cancers by ionising radiation


Refers to a disease that is no longer controlled by current treatment


The reappearance of a disease after its apparent cessation


The basic unit of radiation exposure (Roentgen Equivalent Man)


Complete or partial disappearance of cancer in response to treatment

Residual Volume

The volume of urine remaining in the bladder after voiding



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A malignant tumour of soft tissue or bone

Seminal Vesicles

The storage organs for sperms situated behind the prostate


International unit of radiation exposure.  1 Sievert = 100 Rem


The narrowing or stricture of a duct or tube

Sterile pyuria

The presence of white leucocytes in the urine


A furrow or groove


On the surface


The proportion of the patients alive after diagnosis


Affecting the whole body

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Transitional Cell Carcinoma


The male organ of reproduction


The male hormone


A collection of cells united to form a particular function


A method of staging cancers assessing Tumour Nodes and Metastases


This describes the type of lining found in the bladder


The floor of the bladder situated between the ureteric orifices and the internal urethral meatus


Very small tubular parts


TransUrethral Resection


TransUrethral Resection of a Bladder Tumour


TransUrethral Resection of the Prostate


TransUrethral Vaporisation of the Prostate

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Ultrasound Scan

A scan using high frequency sound waves. The echoes bouncing off tissue interfaces are converted to a picture


Affecting only one side of the body


The foetal connection from the bladder to the umbilicus


Urine is expelled from the body through this tube

Urethral Caruncle

A vascular abnormality at the external urethral meatus in a female


The tube transporting urine from the kidney to the bladder


Pertaining to the ureter


Endoscopic examination of the ureter


Liquid waste excreted by the kidneys

Urine Cytology 

The investigation that looks for cancer cells in the urine


The lining of the urinary tract organs also known as transitional cell epithelium


The hollow female organ of pregnancy

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The passage connecting the vulva to the uterus


A collection of varicose veins arising from the scrotum in the pampiniform plexus of veins


The vestigial remnant of the female cervix situated in the prostate


Of the bladder

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Watchful waiting    

A term referring to the close monitoring of prostate cancer without active treatment

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High energy radiation whose wave length is less than that of visible light




Absorbent Products: Pads and garments, disposable or reusable, worn to absorb leaked urine. Absorbent products include shields, undergarment pads, combination pad-pant systems, diaperlike garments, and bed pads.

Artificial sphincter: Sometimes complicated cases of incontinence require implantation of a device known as an artificial urinary sphincter. People who might benefit from this treatment include those who are incontinent after surgery for prostate cancer or stress incontinence, trauma victims and people with congenital defects in the urinary system. The artificial sphincter has three components, including a pump, balloon reservoir, and a cuff that encircles the urethra and prevents urine from leaking out. The cuff is connected to the pump, which is surgically implanted in the scrotum (in men) or labia (in women). The pump can be activated (usually by squeezing or pressing a button) to deflate the cuff and permit the bladder to empty. After a brief interval, the cuff refills itself and the urethra is again closed. Because the artificial sphincter is an implant, it is subject to the risks common to implants, such as infection, erosion (breaking down of tissue) and mechanical malfunction. Yet with appropriate pre-surgical evaluation, operative techniques and postoperative follow-up, many problems can be avoided and incontinent patients can experience an improved quality of life with this device.

Anemia: A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume.

Anxiety: A debilitating condition of fear, which interferes with normal life functions.

Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) : The new forms of fertility treatment incorporate many methods of sperm retrieval and preparation. Once the sperm have been processed to ensure optimal fertilizing potential, they are used in a variety of procedures that aid the process of conception. These procedures include artificial insemination (AI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and sperm microinjection techniques.

Autologous: Derived from the same individual.


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Behavioral Techniques: Different methods to help "retrain" the bladder and get rid of the urgency to urinate. (see biofeedback, bladder training, electrical stimulation, habit training, pelvic muscle exercises, prompted voiding).

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A condition in which the prostate becomes enlarged as part of the aging process.

Benign Tumor: A tumor that is not cancerous

Bilateral: A term describing a condition that affects both sides of the body or two paired organs, such as kidneys.

Biofeedback: A procedure that uses electrodes to help people gain awareness and control of their pelvic muscles.

Bladder: A hollow muscular balloon shaped organ that stores urine until it is excreted from the body.

Bladder Training: A behavioral technique that teaches the patient to resist or inhibit the urge to urinate, and to urinate according to a schedule rather than urinating at the urge.

Brachytherapy: Involves the placement of tiny radioactive pellets into the Prostate gland. By utilizing ultrasound to place the seed pellets, damage to surrounding tissues is minimized. Approximately 13,500-16,000 rads of radiation energy is delivered directly to the Prostate. This procedure is performed on an outpatient basis. It is a one time procedure with very effective results. The 10-year follow-up outcome data parallels that of Radical Prostatectomy.


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Catheter: A tube passed through the body for draining fluids or injecting them into body cavities. It may be made of elastic, elastic web, rubber, glass, metal, or plastic.

Catheterization: Insertion of a slender tube through the urethra or through the anterior abdominal wall into the bladder, urinary reservoir, or urinary conduit to allow urine drainage.

Chancre: A hard, syphilitic primary ulcer, the first sign of syphilis, appearing approx. 2 to 3 weeks after infection. The ulcer begins as a painless lesion or papule that ulcerates. Occurs generally singly, but sometimes may be multiple.

Chemolysis : Certain types of kidney stones can be dissolved with the application chemicals. Uric acid stones, for example, can be dissolved with a solution of sodium bicarbonate in saline. Cystine stones may be treated successfully with a combination of acetylcysteine and sodium bicarbonate in saline. Struvite and carbon apatite stones can be treated with an acidic solution of hemiacidrin. The procedure involves infusing the chemical solution into the affected area by means of a ureteral catheter in a series of treatments over time until the stone is dissolved. The patient's urine must be cultured regularly throughout the course of treatment to guard against urinary infection and prevent the buildup of excessive chemical levels, particularly magnesium, which can cause other health problems.

Colon: The large intestine.

Creatinine: A waste product that is filtered from the blood by the kidneys and expelled in urine.

Cryotherapy: During an operation probes are placed in the prostate. The probes are then frozen which kills the prostatic cells.

Cystocele: A herniation of bladder into vagina

Cyst: A lump filled with either fluid or soft material, occurring in any organ or tissue; may occur for a number of reasons but is usually harmless unless its presence disrupts organ or tissue function.

Cystectomy: Surgical removal of the bladder.

Cystoscopy: A flexible scope is inserted into the urethra and then into the bladder to determine abnormalities in the bladder and lower urinary tract.


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Diabetes mellitus: A common form of diabetes in which the body cannot properly store or use glucose (sugar), the body's main source of energy.

Diuretic: A drug that increases the amount of water in the urine, removing excess water from the body; used in treating high blood pressure and fluid retention

Electrohydraulic Lithotripsy (EHL) :This technique uses a special probe to break up small stones with shock waves generated by electricity. Through a flexible ureteroscope, the physician positions the tip of the probe 1 mm from the stone. Then, by means of a foot switch, the physician projects electrically generated hydraulic shock waves through an irrigating fluid at the stone until it is broken into small fragments. These can be passed by the patient or removed through the previously described extraction methods. EHL has some limitations: It requires general anesthesia, and is generally not used in close proximity to the kidney itself, as the shock waves can cause tissue damage. Fragments produced by the hydraulic shock also tend to scatter widely, making retrieval or extraction more difficult.

Enterocele: Herniation of small bowel into vagina

Estrogen: Hormones responsible for the development of female sex characteristics; produced by the ovary.

External Beam Radiation therapy: A 25-28 treatment protocol that utilizes External Beam Radiation. Approximately 6800-7400 rads of radiation energy is delivered to the Prostate. There can be some radiation effect on surrounding tissues.

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL): Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy uses highly focused impulses projected from outside the body to pulverize kidney stones.


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Habit Training: A behavioral technique that calls for scheduled toileting at regular intervals on a planned basis. Unlike bladder training, there is no systematic effort to motivate the patient to delay voiding and resist urge.

Hormonal therapy: Involves the use of anti-androgens. An androgen is a male hormone needed for the production of testosterone. By depriving the cancer cells of the testosterone they need for growth, tumors regress in size and cellular activity. Side effects include gynecomastia, the enlargement of breast tissue, hot flashes, and loss of libido ( desire to have sex ). Some long term hormonal therapy is associated with the loss of muscle mass, osteoporosis, and malaise ( loss of energy ).

Hydrocele: A painless swelling of the scrotum, caused by a collection of fluid around the testicle; commonly occurs in middle-aged men.

Hypermobility: A condition characterized in which the pelvic floor muscles can no longer provide the necessary support to the urethra and bladder neck. As a result, the bladder neck drops when any downward pressure is applied and causing involuntary leakage. This condition is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence.

Hyperplasia: Excessive growth of normal cells of an organ.

Insemination: The placement of semen into a woman's uterus, cervix, or vagina.

InterStim Continence Control Therapy: A therapy used in treating urge incontinence. A device, about the size of a pacemaker, that is implanted into the sacral nerves of the lower spine, where it delivers electrical impulses that help regulate bladder function.

Interstitial laser: A laser probe is placed within prostatic tissue. Laser energy is then used to destroy prostatic tissue which makes urination easier.

Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency (ISD): Weakening of the urethra sphincter muscles. As a result of this weakening the sphincter does not function normally regardless of the position of the bladder neck or urethra. This condition is a common cause of stress urinary intinence.

Irritable Bladder: Involuntary contractions of muscles in the bladder, which can cause lack of control of urination.


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Kegel Exercises: Exercises is to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor, which leads to more control and prevents leakage.

Kidney: One of a pair of organs located at the back of the abdominal cavity. Kidneys make urine through blood filtration.

Kidney Stone: A hard mass composed of substances from the urine that form in the kidneys.

Laparoscopy: Surgery using an laparoscope to visualize internal organ through a small incision. Generally less invasive than traditional surgeries requiring a shorter recovery period.

Laparoscopic Lymph Node Dissection: If a perineal prostatectomy is contemplated then prior to the operation the pelvic lymph nodes are sampled via three small incisions made in the abdomen, much like the procedure used to remove gallbladders.

Lithotripsy: A procedure done to break up stones in the urinary tract using ultrasonic shock waves, so that the fragments can be easily passed from the body.


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Menopause: The period that marks the permanent cessation of menstrual activity, usually occurring between the ages of 40 and 58.

Metastasis: The spreading of a cancerous tumor to another part of the body.

Microwave (Targis): A catheter is placed within the bladder and positioned within the prostate, then the antenna emits microwaves. This procedure increases the passageway allowing for easier urination.

Mixed Incontinence: Having both stress and urge incontinence.

Nephrectomy: Removal of an entire kidney.

Open Nephrolithotomy: is the most invasive procedure for removing kidney stones. Because it is so traumatic, most kidneys can withstand no more than two such operations. Deep anesthesia is required, after which the surgeon makes a large (10-20 centimeter) incision in the patient's back or abdomen, depending upon where the stone is located. Either the ureter or the kidney isopened and the stone extracted. Most patients require prolonged hospitalization afterward, and recovery may take up to two months.

Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both of the testicles.

Orchitis: Inflammation of a testicle.

Overactive bladder: A condition characterized by involuntary bladder muscle contractions during the bladder filling phase which the patient cannot suppress.

Overflow UI: Leakage of small amounts of urine from a bladder that is always full.


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Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCN): Percutaneous means "though the skin." In PCN, the surgeon or urologist makes a 1-centimeter incision under local anesthesia in the patient's back, through which an instrument called a nephroscope is passed directly into the kidney and, if necessary, the ureter. Smaller stones may be manually extracted. Large ones may need to be broken up with ultrasonic, electrohydraulic or laser- tipped probes before they can be extracted. A tube may be inserted into the kidney for drainage.

Pelvic muscle exercises: Pelvic muscle exercises are intended to improve your pelvic muscle tone and prevent leakage for sufferers of Stress Urinary Incontinence. Also called Kegel exercises. (see biofeedback)

Periurethral bulking injections: A surgical procedure in which injected implants are used to "bulk up" the area around the neck of the bladder allowing it to resist increases in abdominal pressure which can push down on the bladder and cause leakage.

Post-void residual (PVR) volume: A diagnostic test which measures how much urine remains in the bladder after urination. Specific measurement of PVR volume can be accomplished by catheterization, pelvic ultrasound, radiography, or radioisotope studies.

Prostaglandin: Any of various oxygenated unsaturated cyclic fatty acids of animals that have a variety of hormonelike actions (as in controlling blood pressure or smooth muscle contraction).

Prostate: A muscular, walnut-sized gland that surrounds part of the urethra. It secretes seminal fluid, a milky substance that combines with sperm (produced in the testicles) to form semen.

Prostatectomy: Surgical removal of the prostate.

  • Suprapubic / Retropubic Prostatectomy: This involves the removal of obstructing prostatic tissue through a supra-pubic incision ( a cut below the belly button ). The Prostate is not wholly removed. Suprapubic Prostatectomy requires incising the bladder to remove the obstructing tissue while a Retropubic approach involves incising the Prostatic capsule to remove the obstructing tissue. Both approaches utilize an abdominal incision.
  • Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy: Removal of prostate through an abdominal incision. The prostate is completely removed. The advantage is that the lymph nodes can be sampled at the time of the operation and the nerve-sparing procedure is easier to do via this operation.
  • Perineal Prostatectomy: A Perineal incision is utilized. The advantages are: less blood loss, easier visualization of the bladder / urethral anastomosis and decreased recovery time because the incision does not involve muscle or any other vital tissue

Prostatic stent: Inserted through a cystoscope, it is a wire device that expands after placement thus pushing prostate tissue away from passageway allowing for easier urination.

Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate

Prostatron: Also called TUMT or Transurethral Microwave Thermotherapy. A catheter is placed within the bladder and positioned within the prostate, then the antenna emits microwaves. This procedure increases the passageway allowing for easier urination.

Pubovaginal Sling: A surgical procedure in which a man-made or cadaveric piece of material is placed under the bladder neck to support and immobilize. This technique improves sphincter function and decreases bladder neck movement, improving continence.

Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the kidney, usually due to a bacterial infection.

Pyuria: The presence of pus in the urine; usually an indication of kidney or urinary tract infection.


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Rectocele A herniation of rectum into vagina

Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD): Infections that are most commonly spread through sexual intercourse or genital contact.

Sling Procedures: Surgical methods for treating urinary incontinence involving the placement of a sling, made either of tissue obtained from the person undergoing the sling procedure or a synthetic material. The sling is anchored to retropubic and/or abdominal structures.

Sphincter: A ring of muscle fibers located around an opening in the body that regulates the passage of substances.

Stress Test: A diagnostic test that requires patients to lift something or perform an exercise to determines if there is urine loss when stress is placed on bladder muscles.

Stress Urinary Incontinence: Urinary Incontinence: The involuntary loss of urine during period of increased abdominal pressure. Such events include laughing, sneezing, coughing or lifting heavy objects.

Testosterone: The sex hormone that stimulates development of male sex characteristics and bone and muscle growth; produced by the testicles and in small amounts by the ovaries.

Transient urinary incontinence: Temporary episodes of urinary incontinence that are gone when the cause of the episode is identified and treated