so·lu·tion 
1. a homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) dispersed molecularly in a sufficient quantity of dissolving medium (solvent). The solute may be gas, liquid, or solid; the solvent is usually liquid, but may be solid, as in a solid solution of copper in silver (sterling silver). 2. in pharmacology, a term used to denote a liquid preparation containing one or several soluble chemical substances usually dissolved in water and not, for various reasons, falling into another category, (e.g., syrup, elixir). 3. the process of dissolving. 4. a loosening or separation.
Solution
ACD solution, anticoagulant citrate dextrose s.
acetic acid otic solution, a solution of glacial acetic acid in a nonaqueous solvent; used topically to treat otitis externa caused by Pseudomonas, Candida, and Aspergillus.
acid citrate dextrose solution, anticoagulant citrate dextrose s.
acidulated phosphate fluoride solution, sodium fluoride and acidulated phosphate topical s.
Albright solution, one consisting of 75 g of sodium citrate, 25 g of potassium citrate, 140 g of citric acid, and 1000 mL of water; used in the treatment of renal tubular acidosis.
alcoholic solution, a solution in which alcohol is used as the solvent.
aluminum acetate topical solution, an astringent solution prepared from aluminum subacetate topical solution by the addition of glacial acetic acid and water; used as a gargle or mouthwash and applied to the skin as a wet dressing, diluted with 10 to 40 parts water. Called also Burow s.
aluminum subacetate topical solution, a solution containing aluminum sulfate, acetic acid, precipitated calcium carbonate, and water, used topically on the skin and mucous membranes as an astringent. It is also used as a topical antiseptic and as a wet dressing in various skin diseases.
ammonia solution, see dilute ammonia s. and strong ammonia s.
anisotonic solution, a solution having tonicity differing from that of the standard of reference.
anticoagulant citrate dextrose solution, a solution of citric acid, sodium citrate, and dextrose in water for injection, used as an anticoagulant in the preservation of whole blood.
anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose solution, a solution containing citric acid, sodium citrate, monobasic sodium phosphate, and dextrose in water for injection; used for preservation of whole blood or red cells for up to 21 days. Called also citrate phosphate dextrose s. and CPD s.
anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution, a solution consisting of anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose solution and adenine; used for the preservation of whole blood or red cells for up to 35 days. Called also CPDA-1 s., CPD-adenine s., and citrate adenine phosphate dextrose adenine s.
anticoagulant heparin solution, a sterile solution of heparin sodium in sodium chloride injection, used as an anticoagulant in the preservation of whole blood.
anticoagulant sodium citrate solution, a solution of sodium citrate in water for injection, used for the storage of whole blood, the preparation of blood for fractionation, and the preparation of citrated human plasma.
antipyrine and benzocaine otic solution, a solution of antipyrine and benzocaine in glycerin instilled into the ear canal for relief of pain and inflammation in acute otitis media and as an adjunct in cerumen removal.
antipyrine, benzocaine, and phenylephrine hydrochloride otic solution, a solution of antipyrine, benzocaine, and phenylephrine hydrochloride in a suitable nonaqueous solvent; instilled into the ear canal for relief of pain and inflammation in acute otitis media.
APF solution, sodium fluoride and acidulated phosphate topical s.
aqueous solution, a solution in which water is used as the solvent.
Benedict solution, an aqueous solution of sodium citrate, sodium carbonate, and copper sulfate. Its normal blue color changes to yellow, orange, or red in the presence of a reducing sugar such as glucose. It is used in urinalysis.
Bouin solution, see under fluid.
buffer solution, a solution which resists appreciable change in its hydrogen ion concentration when acid or alkali is added to it.
Burow solution, aluminum acetate topical s.
calcium hydroxide topical solution, a clear, colorless liquid with an alkaline reaction, containing at least 140 mg of calcium hydroxide per 100 mL at 250C; used in preparing various astringent formulations for topical application to the skin and mucous membranes. Called also lime water.
carbamide peroxide topical solution, a solution of carbamide peroxide in anhydrous glycerin, used as a cerumen-softening agent and as a dental cleanser and antiinflammatory.
carbolfuchsin solution, see carbolfuchsin.
carbolfuchsin topical solution, a dark purple solution containing basic fuchsin, phenol, resorcinol, acetone, alcohol, and purified water; used as a topical antifungal in the treatment of dermatophytosis, tinea, and other skin infections. Called also Castellani paint.
cardioplegic solution, a cold solution injected into the aortic root or coronary ostia to induce cardiac arrest and protect the heart from damage during open heart surgery; it is usually potassium in either a buffered electrolyte solution or blood.
carmine solution, a deep red, rather viscous liquid, compounded of carmine, dilute ammonia solution, glycerin, and water; used as a coloring agent.
Carnoy solution, an acid fixative used for studying animal and plant tissue, particularly the cell nucleus and chromosomes; composed of: dehydrated alcohol and glacial acetic acid, and sometimes also chloroform. Called also Carnoy fluid.
centinormal solution, hundredth-normal s.
citrated Locke solution, a solution of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and sodium citrate in distilled water, with pH adjusted to 7.4.
citrate phosphate dextrose solution, anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose s.
citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution, anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution.
colloid solution, colloidal solution, imprecise term for a colloidal system; see colloid (def. 2).
compound iodine solution, strong iodine s.
contrast solution, a solution of a substance opaque to the x-ray, used to facilitate radiographic visualization of some organ or structure in the body.
CPD solution, anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose s.
CPDA-1 solution, CPD-adenine solution, anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose adenine s.
crystal violet solution, gentian violet topical s.
Czapek-Dox solution, Czapek-Dox agar; see under culture medium.
Dakin solution, a diluted sodium hypochlorite solution, often specified as containing 0.5 per cent available chlorine; it has been used as a topical antiinfective for skin and wounds.
decimolar solution, a solution having one-tenth the concentration of a molar solution.
decinormal solution, tenth-normal s.
desonide and acetic acid otic solution, a solution of desonide and acetic acid used topically for the treatment of superficial external auditory canal infections accompanied by inflammation.
dexamethasone sodium phosphate ophthalmic solution, a sterile aqueous solution of dexamethasone sodium phosphate, instilled into the conjunctival sac in the treatment of inflammatory and allergic conditions and into the otic canal for the treatment of superficial external auditory canal infections accompanied by inflammation.
dilute ammonia solution, diluted ammonium hydroxide solution, a colorless, transparent, alkaline liquid, containing 9 to 10 percent of ammonia; used as a pharmaceutic necessity. Called also ammonia water.
disclosing solution, a solution used for the purpose of making something apparent, such as one to be painted on the surface of a tooth in order to stain, and thus render visible, foreign matter or bacterial plaque.
double-normal solution, a solution having double the strength of a normal solution; designated 2 N.
Drabkin solution, an aqueous solution containing 1.0 g sodium bicarbonate, 0.05 g potassium cyanide, and 0.20 g potassium ferricyanide per liter; used to lyse red cells and convert hemoglobin to cyanmethemoglobin in hemoglobinometry.
Fehling solution, an alkaline cupric sulfate solution similar to Benedict reagent.
ferric subsulfate solution, a reddish-brown aqueous solution of basic ferric sulfate, prepared from ferrous sulfate, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid; used as an astringent and hemostatic.
fiftieth-normal solution, a solution having one-fiftieth the strength of a normal solution: designated N/50 or 0.02 N.
fixative solution, see fixative.
Flemming solution, a solution for hardening histological specimens, consisting of chromium trioxide, osmium tetroxide, glacial acetic acid, and water.
formaldehyde solution, a solution of formaldehyde in water, containing not less than 37 per cent of formaldehyde; used as a disinfectant and as a preservative and fixative for pathologic specimens. Called also formalin and formol.
formol-Zenker solution, Zenker-formol fixative.
gentian violet topical solution, a purple liquid with a slight odor of alcohol, containing gentian violet, alcohol, and purified water, applied topically to the skin and mucous membranes in infections associated with gram-positive bacteria and molds. Called also crystal violet s. and methylrosaniline chloride s.
Gilson solution, a fixative solution consisting of mercury bichloride, nitric acid, glacial acetic acid, 70 per cent alcohol, and water.
Gowers solution, a solution of sodium sulfate, glacial acetic acid, and water, used for the dilution of blood prior to counting red blood cells with a hemocytometer.
Gram solution, see under stain.
gram molecular solution, molar s.
half-normal solution, a solution having half the strength of a normal solution; designated N/2.
Hayem solution, a solution of mercury bichloride, sodium chloride, and sodium sulfate, used in diluting blood prior to counting red blood cells with a hemocytometer.
heparin lock flush solution, a sterile preparation of heparin sodium injection with sufficient sodium chloride to make it isotonic with blood, used to maintain patency of indwelling intravascular devices designed for intermittent injection or infusion therapy or blood sampling.
hundredth-normal solution, a solution having one-hundredth the strength of a normal solution; designated N/100 or 0.01 N.
hydrogen peroxide topical solution, a solution containing 2.5–3.5 g hydrogen peroxide per 100 mL; used as a topical antiinfective to the skin and mucous membranes.
hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ophthalmic solution, a sterile solution containing 85–115 per cent hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; applied topically to the conjunctiva to protect the cornea during certain ophthalmic procedures and to lubricate the cornea.
hyperbaric solution, a solution having a greater specific gravity than a standard of reference, such as one used for spinal anesthesia having a specific gravity greater than that of the spinal fluid, causing it to migrate downward and produce anesthesia below the level of injection.
hypobaric solution, a solution having a specific gravity less than that of a standard of reference, such as one used for spinal anesthesia having a specific gravity less than that of the spinal fluid, causing it to migrate upward and produce anesthesia above the level of injection.
iodine topical solution, transparent, reddish brown liquid, with the odor of iodine, consisting of iodine and sodium iodide in purified water, each 100 mL of which contains 1.8 to 2.2 g of iodine and 2.1 to 2.6 g of sodium iodide; used as a topical antiinfective.
isobaric solution, a solution having the same specific gravity as a standard of reference, such as one used for spinal anesthesia having a specific gravity the same as that of the spinal fluid, causing it to remain and produce anesthesia at the level of injection.
Kinyoun carbolfuchsin solution, Kinyoun carbolfuchsin. See also Kinyoun staining method, at Table of Stains and Staining Mehtods, under stain.
Labarraque solution, sodium hypochlorite solution, diluted with an equal volume of water.
lactated Ringer solution, see under injection.
lactulose solution, an aqueous solution prepared from lactulose concentrate, consisting principally of lactulose, with small quantities of lactose and galactose and traces of other related sugars; used to reduce blood ammonia levels in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, administered orally.
Lang solution, a hardening fluid containing corrosive mercury bichloride, sodium chloride, and acetic acid, in water.
Locke solution, a solution of sodium chloride, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and dextrose; used in physiological experiments to keep the mammalian heart beating.
Locke-Ringer solution, a test solution containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, dextrose, and water.
Lugol solution, strong iodine s.
magnesium citrate oral solution, a colorless to slightly yellow, clear, effervescent liquid, with a sweet, acidulous taste and a lemon flavor, prepared using magnesium carbonate, anhydrous citric acid, syrup, talc, lemon oil, potassium bicarbonate, and purified water; used as a cathartic.
methoxsalen topical solution, a preparation containing 9.2 to 10.8 mg of methoxsalen per mL; used in conjunction with exposure to ultraviolet light to facilitate repigmentation in idiopathic vitiligo.
methylcellulose ophthalmic solution, a sterile solution of methylcellulose, applied topically to protect the cornea during certain ophthalmic procedures and to lubricate the cornea.
methylrosaniline chloride solution, gentian violet topical s.
molal solution, a solution containing 1 mole of solute dissolved in 1000 g of solvent.
molar solution, a solution each liter of which contains 1 mole of solute per liter of solution: designated M/1 or 1 M. The concentration of other solutions may be expressed in relation to that of molar solutions as tenth-molar (M/10 or 0.1 M), etc.
molecular disperse solution, a solution in which the dispersed particles have a diameter of about 0.1 picometer.
Monsel solution, ferric subsulfate s.
Nessler solution, see under reagent.
normal solution, a solution in which each liter contains 1 equivalent weight of the dissolved substance: designated N/1 or 1 N.
normal saline solution, normal salt solution, physiologic saline s.
ophthalmic solution, a sterile solution, essentially free from foreign particles and suitably compounded and dispensed, for instillation into the eye.
Perenyi solution, an embryological fixing solution, consisting of 10 per cent solution of nitric acid, alcohol, and 0.5 per cent solution of chromic acid.
physiologic saline solution, physiologic salt solution, physiologic sodium chloride solution, a 0.9 per cent aqueous solution of sodium chloride, which is isotonic with blood serum.
potassium citrate and citric acid oral solution, a solution of potassium citrate and citric acid monohydrate in an aqueous medium, providing approximately 2 mmol potassium per mL and used as an electrolyte replenisher.
Ringer solution, see under injection and irrigation.
saline solution, salt solution, a solution of sodium chloride in purified water.
saturated solution, one in which the solvent has taken up all of the dissolved substance that it can hold in solution.
sclerosing solution, a solution of a sclerosing agent, for use in sclerotherapy.
seminormal solution, half-normal s.
Shohl solution, a solution containing 140 g citric acid and 98 g hydrated crystalline salt of sodium citrate in distilled water to make 1000 mL; used to correct electrolyte imbalance in the treatment of renal tubular acidosis.
sodium chloride solution, see under injection and irrigation.
sodium fluoride and acidulated phosphate topical solution, a fluoride-containing preparation, consisting of sodium fluoride, hydrofluoric acid, and phosphoric acid, with concentrations of 1.23 per cent fluoride ion and 0.98 per cent phosphoric acid, pH of 3.0 to 3.5; applied topically to the teeth as a dental caries prophylactic.
sodium hypochlorite solution, a clear, pale, greenish yellow liquid with the odor of chlorine, containing 4–6 per cent sodium hypochlorite; used as a disinfectant for utensils, etc., but not suitable for application to wounds. It has also been used as a deodorant and bleaching agent. In diluted form, usually at a strength of approximately 0.5 per cent available chlorine, it has been used as a local anti-infective and wound irrigant. See also Dakin solution, under solution.
sodium hypochlorite topical solution, a colorless to light yellow liquid containing between 0.20 and 0.32 g of sodium hypochlorite in a topical solution; used as a local anti-infective.
sodium phosphates rectal solution, a solution of dibasic sodium phosphate and monobasic sodium phosphate, or dibasic sodium phosphate and phosphoric acid, in purified water; used as a cathartic; called also sodium phosphate and biphosphate enema and sodium phosphates enema.
solid solution, a crystalline phase of solution that is homogeneous but has several different chemical components, whose molecules are randomly distributed on the points of the space lattice. See also under alloy.
standard solution, one that contains in each liter a definitely stated amount of reagent; usually expressed in terms of normality (equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution) or molarity (moles of solute per liter of solution).
strong ammonia solution, stronger ammonium hydroxide solution, a colorless, transparent, strongly alkaline liquid containing 27–31 per cent ammonia; used as a solvent and as a source of ammonia in pharmaceutical preparations. Called also stronger ammonia water.
strong iodine solution, a transparent, deep brown liquid, with the odor of iodine, containing in purified water 4.5–5.5 g of iodine and 9.5–10.5 g of potassium iodidein 100 mL; used as a source of iodine in preparation for thyroid surgery, administered orally, and in Gram method and other staining methods. Called also Lugol s.
supersaturated solution, an unstable solution that contains more of the solute than it can permanently hold.
susa solution, a decalcifying solution used for fixing animal tissue, composed of mercury bichloride, sodium chloride, trichloroacetic acid, formaldehyde solution, and water.
TAC solution, a solution of tetracaine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and cocaine, used as a local anesthetic in the emergency treatment of uncomplicated lacerations.
tenth-normal solution, one having one-tenth the strength of a normal solution: designated N/10 or 0.1 N.
test solutions, standard solutions (in purity and concentration) of specified chemical substances used in performing certain test procedures.
thousandth-normal solution, a solution having one-thousandth the strength of a normal solution: designated N/1000 or 0.001 N.
Toison solution, a fluid used in diluting blood for the counting of the erythrocytes, consisting of gentian violet, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, glycerin, and water. Called also Toison fluid.
Tyrode solution, a modified Locke solution containing magnesium.
University of Wisconsin solution, a preservation solution used to flush organs before cold storage prior to transplantation to prevent cold-induced cell injury.
volumetric solution, one that contains a specific quantity of solute per stated unit of volume; see also standard s.
xanthan gum solution, a solution of xanthan gum, methylparaben, and propylparaben in purified water; used as a suspending, stabilizing, emulsifying and thickening agent.
Zenker solution, see under fixative.
Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin solution, Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin. See also Ziehl-Neelsen staining method, at Table of Stains and Staining Mehtods, under stain.