meth·od
the manner of performing any act or operation. See also under maneuver, operation, procedure, technique, treatment, stain, test, etc.
Method
 
Abbott method, treatment of scoliosis by lateral pulling and counterpulling on the spinal column by means of wide bandages and pads until the deformity is overcorrected, and then applying a plaster jacket to produce pressure, counterpressure, and fixation of the spine in its corrected position.
absorption method, the separate and selective removal of agglutinins from specific immune sera by the addition of homologous particulate antigen(s) (e.g., bacterial cells or red blood cells) to the immune sera, or by the passage of specific immune sera through columns containing antigen on an insoluble support (immunosorbent) with which the homologous antibody combines and is thereby removed from the serum.
acid hematin method, a formerly common method of estimating hemoglobin: the hemoglobin was converted into acid hematin by adding hydrochloric acid and the resulting color was compared to a standard color scale.
agar dilution method, a dilution method of antibiotic susceptibility testing done in a series of test tubes containing agar.
Altmann-Gersh method, a method of preparing tissue for histologic study by freeze drying.
autoclave method, see Clark-Collip m. (def. 2).
back pressure–arm lift method, Holger Nielsen m.
Barger method, a method for determining osmotic pressure from vapor pressure.
Barraquer method, phacoerysis.
Bethea method, see under sign.
Bivine method, treatment of strychnine poisoning by administration of chloral hydrate.
Bobath method, a system of therapeutic exercise designed to inhibit spasticity and to aid in the development of new reflex responses and equilibrium reactions by modifying postures that progress from simple movements to more complex ones in a sequence based on the neurological development of an infant.
Brandt-Andrews method, see under maneuver.
brine flotation method, (for concentration of eggs) a portion of the feces is suspended in a saturated solution of sodium chloride and let stand for a time; then eggs are collected from the surface.
broth dilution method, a dilution method of antimicrobial susceptibility testing done in a series of test tubes containing broth; it is now usually done as the broth microdilution method.
broth microdilution method, a variant of the broth dilution method that uses microscopic amounts of the antimicrobial and inoculum.
Brunnstrom method, a system of therapeutic exercise designed to inhibit spasticity through the sensory stimulation of synergetic movements; to the degree that the synergies subside, the voluntary isolated movements that remain can be emphasized so that motor control is gradually increased.
buffy coat method, (for detectingLeishmania, microfilariae, and trypanosomes) a blood sample is centrifuged in a hematocrit tube and the buffy coat is examined for parasites.
calcium, methods for, see specific methods, including Clark-Collip m. (def. 1).
caliper method, a method for approximating fat content in the body by measuring the thickness of folds of the skin at stated areas of the body by means of specially designed calipers.
Caliper method being used to measure the thickness of the skinfold over the triceps muscle.
 
Callahan method, in root canal therapy, a filling method in which the canal is first flooded with a chloroform-rosin solution and then gutta-percha is dissolved in the solution.a method of tracing and opening up a root canal by destroying the pulp tissue with a 50 per cent sulfuric acid solution.
Carrel method, a method of end-to-end suture of blood vessels.see under treatment.a method of determining when to make secondary closure of wounds. A loop of material is taken from the wound, spread on a slide, stained, and the number of bacteria counted.
Castaneda method, (for rickettsiae in smears) a thin smear is made in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.6) and air-dried, stained with methylene blue solution for 3 minutes, counterstained with safranine solution, and washed, blotted, and dried. Rickettsiae appear pale blue; cell nuclei and protoplasm are red.
chest pressure–arm lift method, Silvester m.
Chick-Martin method, see under test.
chloropercha method, in root canal therapy, a method of filling the canal with gutta-percha dissolved in a chloroform-rosin solution; see Callahan m. (def. 1) and Johnson m.
Ciaccio method, treatment of tissue for the purpose of rendering visible the intracellular lipids; they are fixed with acid chromate solution and stained with Sudan III.
Clark-Collip method, (for calcium in serum) dilute the serum and add ammonium oxalate; wash the precipitate, dissolve with sulfuric acid, and titrate with potassium permanganate.(for urea in blood) to 5 mL of blood filtrate add 1 mL of NH4Cl and heat in autoclave at 1500C for ten minutes. Make alkaline, distill into acid, and titrate, using methyl red as indicator.
Clauss method, a type of fibrinogen assay similar to the test for thrombin time, estimating the functional fibrinogen level by adding fibrin reagent to plasma and noting the time until fibrinogen converts to fibrin; it differs from the thrombin time by using plasma diluted with Owren buffer and using a much stronger concentration of thrombin reagent. Called also Clauss assay.
closed-plaster method, treatment of wounds, compound fractures, and osteomyelitis by enclosing the limb in an immobilizing plaster cast. See Orr treatment and Trueta treatment, under treatment.
Converse method, reconstruction of the ear lobe by raising a flap of skin below the auricle with a superior base about one third larger than the proposed lobe; a full-thickness skin graft covers the defect at the site of the flap except for the last third of the medial aspect of the pedicle.
Couette method, a method for measuring viscosity by calculating the rate of movement of an inner cylinder separated from an outer cylinder by a thin layer of the fluid whose viscosity is being tested.
Coutard method, a method of x-ray irradiation by protracted and fractionated dosage.
creatine, methods for, see specific methods, including Folin m. (defs. 4, 5) and Folin and Wu m. (def. 2).
creatinine, methods for, see specific methods, including Folin m. (def. 6) and Folin and Wu m. (defs. 1, 2), and see under test.
Credé method, method of expressing the placenta by forcing the uterus down into the pelvis and at the same time squeezing the uterus from all sides so that its contents are expelled.a similar method for expressing urine from the bladder, especially in paralytic bladder. Defs. 1 and 2 called also Credé maneuver.the placing of a drop of 2 per cent solution of silver nitrate in each eye of a newborn child for the prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum.
Cronin method, an operation to correct a flat nasal tip with short columella by using bilateral flaps of skin elevated in the floor of the nostrils.
Cuignet method, retinoscopy.
cup plate method, see ring test (def. 1), under tests.
Dakin-Carrel method, Carrel treatment; see under treatment.
Denis-Leche method, (for total sulfate) add acid and autoclave to decompose protein, then precipitate with barium chloride, dry, and weigh.
Denman method, see under evolution.
Dickinson method, a method of controlling postpartum hemorrhage: the entire uterus is grasped through the abdominal wall, lifted out of the pelvis, and compressed against the spinal column.
dilution method, any of various antimicrobial susceptibility tests in which a given microorganism is inoculated into a series of tubes or wells containing different concentrations of a particular antibiotic and the minimal inhibitory concentration and the minimal bactericidal concentration are determined.
direct method, in ophthalmoscopy, that in which the ophthalmoscope is held close to the eye examined and an erect virtual image is obtained of the fundus.
direct centrifugal flotation method, Lane m.
disk diffusion method, see disk diffusion test, under test.
Domagk method, (for demonstration of reticuloendothelial cells) a culture of gram-positive staphylococci in physiologic salt solution is injected into the femoral vein of a rat which is then killed in fifteen to thirty minutes. In formalin-fixed sections stained by cresyl violet or by Gram stain followed by alum-carmine, Kupffer cells and other cells of the reticuloendothelial system stand out strikingly.
Duke method, see under test.
dye dilution method, a type of indicator dilution method for assessing flow through the circulatory system; the indicator is a dye, usually indocyanine green.
egg concentration, method for, see brine flotation m.
Eicken method, examination of the hypopharynx, with the cricoid cartilage drawn forward.
Ellinger method, (for indican) precipitate the urine with basic lead acetate and filter. To the filtrate add Obermayer reagent. Shake out the indigo with chloroform, evaporate off the chloroform, and titrate the residue with potassium permanganate.
Eskimo method, closed reduction of an anterior shoulder dislocation by having the patient lie on the unaffected side and applying traction against gravity by lifting the patient by the affected arm.
expired air method, see under resuscitation.
external rotation method, closed reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation by adducting the arm to the patient's side with the elbow flexed to 90 degrees as the patient lies supine, then rotating the arm externally using the forearm as a lever.
Fahraeus method, the original (1918) method that was used to determine the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Faust method, a method of diagnosing helminth and protozoan infections by centrifugation of washed feces with zinc sulfate of a specific gravity of 1.180, after which eggs and protozoan cysts may be removed from the supernatant layer.
Fay method, a system of therapeutic exercise for overcoming spasticity; the central nervous system is reeducated according to a theory of hierarchical development starting with the performance of simple reflex movements and progressing to more advanced patterns of coordination.
Feldenkrais Method, a proprietary system that uses an exploratory technique to enable patients to relearn dysfunctional movement patterns. Therapy takes two forms: awareness through movement, in which the patient is guided verbally through increasingly complex structured movements, and functional integration, in which the practitioner introduces new motion patterns to the patient by gentle manipulation.
fibrinogen, method for, see fibrinogen assay, under assay.
Fick method, a method for measuring cardiac output based on the Fick principle applied to pulmonary blood flow: the rate of oxygen consumption by the lungs, when divided by the arteriovenous oxygen difference (the difference in oxygen concentration between the arterial and venous systems), gives the rate of blood flow across the pulmonary capillaries and the cardiac output. See also indicator dilution m.
Fishberg method, one for determining specific gravity of the urine, which serves as a concentration test of renal function.
Fiske method, (for total fixed base) remove phosphates with ferric chloride, convert fixed bases into sulfates by heating in sulfuric acid, ignite, take up in water, precipitate sulfates as benzidine sulfate, and titrate with alkali.
Fiske and Subbarow's method, (for acid-soluble phosphorus in blood) destroy organic matter by heating with sulfuric and nitric acids, precipitate the phosphates as magnesium ammonium phosphate, and reduce the precipitate with para-amino-naphthol-sulfonic acid. Compare the blue color with a standard phosphate solution.(for inorganic phosphates) the phosphates are precipitated as ammonium phosphomolybdate. This is then reduced by para-amino-naphthol-sulfonic acid and the blue color compared colorimetrically with a standard solution.
fixed base, method for, see Fiske m.
flash method, see pasteurization.
flotation method, any method for separating cysts and eggs from the heavier component of the feces; this requires use of a solution intermediate in density between the parasitic material (which floats) and the bulk of the feces (which remains as sediment after centrifugation).
Folin method, (for acetone) aerate the acetone into a solution of sodium bisulfite and then determine the amount of nephelometric comparison with a standard acetone solution using Scott and Wilson reagent.(for amino acids in blood) make 10 mL of protein-free blood filtrate slightly alkaline to phenolphthalein. Add 2 mL of beta-naphthaquinone solution and place in the dark. The next day add 2 mL of acetic acid–acetate solution and 2 mL of 4 per cent thiosulfate solution. Dilute to 25 mL and compare the blue color with a standard amino-acid solution similarly treated.(for ammonia nitrogen) sodium carbonate is added to the urine to free the ammonia, which is aerated into standard acid and titrated.(for creatine) precipitate the proteins of the blood with picric acid and filter. To the filtrate add sodium hydroxide and compare color with a standard solution of creatine.(for creatine in urine) change creatine into creatinine by heating at 900C for three hours in the presence of third normal HCl. Determine creatinine by picric acid and alkali and deduct the preformed creatinine.(for creatinine in urine) to the urine add picric acid and sodium hydroxide and compare the red color with a half normal solution of potassium bichromate.(for ethereal sulfates) remove the inorganic sulfates with barium chloride and then the conjugated sulfates after hydrolyzing with boiling dilute hydrochloric acid.(for inorganic sulfates) acidify the urine with hydrochloric acid, precipitate with barium chloride, filter, dry, ignite, and weigh.(for protein in urine) add acetic acid and heat, wash, dry, and weigh the precipitate.(for total acidity) add potassium oxalate to the urine to precipitate the calcium which should otherwise precipitate at the neutral point, and titrate with tenth normal sodium hydroxide, using phenolphthalein as an indicator.(for total sulfates) boil the urine for thirty minutes with dilute hydrochloric acid, precipitate with barium chloride, filter, dry, ignite, and weigh.(for urea and allantoin) decompose the urea by heating with magnesium chloride and hydrochloric acid, distill off the ammonia, and titrate.
Folin and Wu method, (for creatinine) the color produced by the unknown (protein-free blood filtrate or urine) in an alkaline solution of picric acid is compared in a colorimeter with the color produced by a known solution of creatinine or with a standard solution of potassium bichromate.(for creatine plus creatinine) the creatine of a protein-free blood filtrate is changed to creatinine by heating with dilute hydrochloric acid in an autoclave, and the creatinine thus produced together with the preformed creatinine is determined colorimetrically after adding an alkaline picrate solution.(nonprotein nitrogen) the total nonprotein nitrogen in the protein-free blood filtrate is determined by setting free the nitrogen as ammonia by the Kjeldahl process, nesslerizing this ammonia, and comparing with a standard.(for protein-free blood filtrate) lake the blood with distilled water, add sodium tungstate and sulfuric acid, and filter.(for urea) change the urea to ammonia by means of urease, and nesslerize.(for uric acid) uric acid is precipitated from the protein-free blood filtrate or from urine by silver lactate, treated with phosphotungstic acid, and the blue color compared with the color produced by known amounts of uric acid.
Fülleborn method, (for parasite eggs in feces) 1 g of feces is ground and mixed with 20 mL of a saturated solution of sodium chloride; the mixture is allowed to stand for at least one hour, and then coverglasses are floated on the surface and transferred without draining to slides.
Gerota method, injection of the lymphatics with a dye, such as Prussian blue, which is soluble in chloroform or ether, but not in water.
glucose, methods for, See glucose test, under test.
Gram method, see Stains and Staining Methods, under stain.
Hamilton method, (in postpartum hemorrhage), compress the uterus between a fist in the vagina and a hand pressing down the abdominal wall.
Heublein method, ionizing irradiation of the whole body with low-dose increments protracted for ten to twenty hours per day over several days.
hippocratic method, closed reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation by abduction of the arm with longitudinal traction and gentle external rotation; countertraction is provided by the placing of the physician's foot against the chest wall.
Hirschberg method, measurement of the deviation of a strabismic eye by observing the reflection of a candle from the cornea.
holding method, see pasteurization.
Holger Nielsen method, a nonmechanical method of emergency artificial respiration: with victim prone, rescuer alternately extends victim's arms to aid inhalation and presses down on victim's scapulae to aid exhalation. Called also Nielsen m. and back pressure–arm lift m.
indican, methods for, see specific methods, including Ellinger m., and see under test.
indicator dilution method, any of several methods for assessing flow through the circulatory system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. See also dye dilution m. and thermodilution.
indole, methods for, see under test.
iodine, methods for, see under test.
Ivy method, see under test.
Jendrassik-Grof method, (for conjugated bilirubin) a fasting sample of serum or plasma is collected and acidified by the addition of hydrochloric acid. Ehrlich's diazo reagent is added so that the conjugated bilirubin begins forming blue azobilirubin. After 10 minutes the reaction is stopped and the amount of azobilirubin in the sample is measured.(for total bilirubin) to an acidified fasting sample as in the previous method, caffeine benzoate is added as an accelerator for the unconjugated bilirubin to form azobilirubin. When the reaction is stopped, the azobilirubin in the sample thus represents the total of both conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin.
Johnson method, a modification of the Callahan method (def. 1) of root canal therapy; the canal is first flooded with alcohol, allowing diffusion of the chloroform component of the chloroform-rosin solution; alcohol deep in the dentin facilitates rosin dissolved in the chloroform to be diffused into the dentin.
Kaplan-Meier method, that used in the analysis of survival data to create a Kaplan-Meier survival curve (q.v.). Called also product-limit m. or estimate.
Kety-Schmidt method, a method of measuring perfusion flow of blood through brain tissue.
Kirstein method, direct laryngoscopy.
Kjeldahl method, (1883), a method of determining the amount of nitrogen in an organic compound. It consists in heating the material to be analyzed with strong sulfuric acid. The nitrogen is thereby converted to ammonia, which is distilled off and caught in tenth normal solution of sulfuric acid. By titration the amount of ammonia is determined, and from this the amount of nitrogen is estimated.
Klüver-Barrera method, a histologic staining method in which myelin sheaths are stained blue-green and the cells purple.
Kocher method, closed reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation by applying traction and external rotation of the arm, then bringing the arm across the patient's chest to effect reduction, and finally internally rotating the arm.
Korotkoff method, the auscultatory method of determining blood pressure.
Laborde method, the making of rhythmic traction movements on the tongue in order to stimulate the respiratory centers in asphyxiation.
Lamaze method, a psychoprophylactic method of preparing for delivery, involving education of the prospective mother in the physiology of pregnancy and parturition as well as in techniques such as breathing exercises and bearing down for the easing of delivery.
Lane method, a method of diagnosing hookworm infection by centrifugation of 1 mL of washed feces mixed with brine, the tube being covered with a cover slip on which the eggs can be counted. Called also direct centrifugal flotation m., or DCF.
lateral condensation method, a method of root canal therapy in which the main portion of the canal is filled with a primary gutta-percha cone or silver point and sealer cement or paste and the remaining space is packed with auxiliary gutta-percha cones. Spreader sites and pluggers are used to force gutta-percha into the canal laterally and sometimes vertically. Called also multiple cone m.
Lateral condensation method. (A), Primary cone in place with filling spreader. (B), Auxiliary cone placed in space created by spreader. (C), All auxiliary cones in place.
 
Leboyer method, a method of delivery of the infant based upon the theory that the violence associated with birth causes emotional trauma to the infant, which will affect the child's personality throughout life. The concepts of this method emphasize that the delivery should be gentle and controlled, without unnecessary intervention; the infant should be handled gently, with the head, neck, and sacrum supported; the infant should not be overstimulated and should be allowed to breathe spontaneously, without painful stimuli such as spanking. Called also Leboyer technique.
Milch method, closed reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation by traction on the arm, which is abducted overhead with the patient in the supine position, external rotation, and pressure on the head of the humerus; in some modifications of this technique the patient lies prone.
Monte Carlo method, artificial replication, usually by computer, of a sampling experiment; used to estimate a probability.
mouth-to-mouth method, see under resuscitation.
multiple cone method, lateral condensation m.
Nielsen method, Holger Nielsen m.
Nikiforoff method, a method of fixing blood films by placing them for from five to fifteen minutes in absolute alcohol, pure ether, or equal parts of alcohol and ether.
Ogino-Knaus method, rhythm method.
optical density method, the measuring of growth rates of cells by taking the optical density or turbidity of a dense population and comparing this with optical densities of known dilutions of the sample.
Orr method, see under treatment.
Orsi-Grocco method, palpatory percussion of the heart.
panoptic method, see Giemsa stain, at Stains and Staining Methods under stain.
Pap silver method, a method for demonstrating reticulum.
point source method, a method of intracavitary irradiation of the bladder wall utilizing a small point source of radiation at the center of a Foley catheter balloon inflated with a radiopaque solution containing methylene blue or indigo carmine.
Politzer method, an imprecise test for patency of the auditory tube: with the mouth closed and one nostril occluded, air is forced into the other nostril through a rubber tube; this should cause positive pressure in the middle ear so that the tympanic membrane bulges outward. Called also Politzer test.
Ponseti method, a technique for correcting clubfoot by weekly manipulation and casting, lasting 5–6 weeks, followed by maintenance with a foot abduction orthosis to prevent recurrence; a percutaneous tenotomy is usually performed before the final casting to lengthen the Achilles tendon and prevent development of a rocker-bottom foot deformity.
potassium hydroxide concentration method, (for oocysts ofCyclosporain a stool sample): a fecal suspension is mixed with potassium hydroxide and saline, filtered, and centrifuged; the sediment is then examined on a slide.
product-limit method, Kaplan-Meier m.
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation method, see under facilitation.
radioactive balloon method, a method of intracavitary irradiation of the bladder wall utilizing a Foley catheter balloon filled with a radioactive solution.
retrofilling method, see retrofilling.
rhythm method, a method of preventing conception by restricting coitus to the so-called safe period, avoiding the days just before and after the expected time of ovulation. Called also periodic abstinence.
Rideal-Walker method, a method for calculating the phenol coefficient of a disinfectant; cultures of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi are incubated with serial dilutions of the test compound, with dilutions of phenol as standards. Samples are removed at intervals, transferred to sterile broth, and the resulting cultures incubated and examined for bacterial growth.
Ritchie formalin–ethyl acetate method, (for detecting parasites in the feces): the feces are diluted and centrifuged; formalin and ethyl acetate are added to the sample; it is recentrifuged; and the final sediment is examined as a wet mount. Called also Ritchie formalin–ethyl acetate sedimentation.
Ritgen method, see under maneuver.
Romanowsky (Romanovsky) method, see Stains and Staining Methods, under stain.
Rood method, a technique for overcoming spasticity, based on the theory that stimulation of a specific area of the skin will promote the contraction of underlying muscles and lead to the reciprocal relaxation of related antagonistic muscles; stimulation is done by stroking with a special brush or with ice.
Rosen method, a bodywork technique based on the premise that there is a connection between chronic muscular tension and suppressed emotions or trauma; using gentle touch and verbal support and guided by careful attention to changes in muscle tension and breathing patterns, the therapist helps the patient to relax the muscular tension and so to bring the underlying repressed memories to the surface and release them.
Sahli method, acid hematin m.
Schafer method, a nonmechanical method of emergency artificial respiration: patient is prone with forehead on one arm; rescuer's knees are on either side of patient's hips; pressure is exerted on patient's back using two hands over the lower ribs; rescuer rises up slowly and simultaneously relaxes the pressure on patient's back; procedure is repeated every 5 seconds.
sectional method, in root canal therapy, filling of the canal by packing in 2- to 3-mm cut sections of gutta-percha cones until it is filled.
Sheather sugar flotation method, modified, a method for detecting oocysts of Cryptosporidium in a stool sample; a fecal suspension is mixed with a boiled sugar solution, phenol, and sugar flotation solution and then examined on a slide.
sib-pair method, see under analysis.
silver cone method, silver point method, in root canal therapy, a method of filling the canal in which a prefitted silver point is sealed into the canal apex and irregularities in the canal that are not sealed with the point are obliterated by gutta-percha through lateral condensation or segmentation, or by a root canal paste or sealer.
Silvester method, a nonmechanical method of emergency artificial respiration: with patient supine, rescuer pulls patient's arms firmly over head to raise the ribs and aid inhalation; the arms are then brought down and pressed against the chest to aid exhalation; procedure is repeated 16 times per minute. Called also chest pressure–arm lift m.
single cone method, in root canal therapy, a method of filling the canal with a single well-fitting gutta-percha cone or silver point in conjunction with a sealer cement or paste.
Sluder method, a method formerly used for tonsillectomy; the tonsils were removed with a small guillotine-like apparatus.
Smellie method, Mauriceau maneuver.
Somogyi method, (for amylase activity) a method based on the disappearance of the blue color given by iodine and amylose (linear fraction of starch) after amylase in serum, urine, etc., is allowed to act on starch.
sperm swim-up method, see under technique.
split cast method, a procedure for placing indexed casts on a dental articulator to facilitate their removal and replacement on the instrument.the procedure of checking the ability of a dental articulator to receive or be adjusted to a maxillomandibular relation record. Called also split cast mounting.
Stimson method, closed reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation by using a small weight to exert traction on the affected arm, which hangs over the edge of the table with the patient in the prone position.
Stimson method for reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation.
sugar, methods for, see sugar test, under test.
sulfosalicylic acid method, (for proteinuria) sulfosalicylic acid is added to urine and the mixture is left standing for 10 minutes; the degree of turbidity is then compared to a known scale to estimate the amount of protein in the urine.
sulfur, total, methods for, see specific methods, including Denis-Leche m.
Sumner method, (for glucose in urine) heat 1 mL of urine and 3 mL of Sumner dinitrosalicylic acid reagent, dilute to 25 mL and compare the color with that of a standard glucose solution similarly treated.
suspension method, a method of intracavitary irradiation of the bladder wall by instilling a radioactive solution or suspension directly into the bladder by means of a catheter.
template method, a bleeding time test in which a template with a standard-sized slit is laid on the patient's forearm and an incision is made through the slit with a standard-sized knife.
Thane method, a method of locating the fissure of Rolando. Its upper end is about one-half inch behind the middle of a line uniting the inion and the glabella, and its lower end about one-quarter inch above and one and one-quarter inches behind the external angular process of the frontal bone.
thermal dilution method, thermodilution.
thyroid activity, method for, thyroid function test; see under test.
traction-countertraction method, closed reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation by longitudinal traction on the arm with external rotation; countertraction is provided by a sheet passed around the chest under the axilla of the affected shoulder and held by an assistant.
Trueta method, see under treatment.
urea, methods for, see specific methods, including Clark-Collip m. (def. 2), Folin m. (def. 12), and Folin and Wu m. (def. 5). See also urea test, under test.
urease, method for, urease test; see under test.
uric acid, methods for, see specific methods, including Folin and Wu m. (def. 6). See also uric acid test, under test.
Valsalva method, Valsalva maneuver (def. 2).
van Gehuchten method, fixing of a histologic tissue in a mixture of glacial acetic acid 10 parts, chloroform 30 parts, and alcohol 60 parts.
Van Slyke method, see under test.
vertical condensation method, in root canal therapy, a method of filling the canal by alternately heating and vertically condensing gutta-percha until the apical third of the canal is filled; the coronal portion of the canal is then filled with warmed 2- to 4-mm sections of gutta-percha cones.
Welcker method, determination of the total blood volume by bleeding and then washing out the blood vessels.
Westergren method, the most common method for testing the erythrocyte sedimentation rate; four volumes of whole blood are mixed with one volume of sodium citrate anticoagulant-diluent solution and placed in a Westergren tube graduated in millimeters from 0 to 200, filling to the 0 mark; the tube is placed in a vertical position for 1 hour and the fall of the level of red cells is recorded in mm/hr.
Whipple method, the use of liver in pernicious anemia.
Wintrobe method, (for erythrocyte sedimentation rate) EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood is placed in a Wintrobe hematocrit tube, the tube is left standing undisturbed in a vertical position, and the fall of the level of red cells in one hour is recorded in mm/hr. The volume of packed red cells can then be determined using the same tube.
Wynn method, a procedure for repair of bilateral cleft lips by means of a long, narrow triangular flap.
Yuzpe method, a regimen for postcoital contraception, consisting of a combination of 200 μg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg norgestrel in two divided doses 12 hours apart.
Ziehl-Neelsen method, see Stains and Staining Methods, under stain.