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Muscle
an organ which by contraction produces the movements of an animal organism; there are two varieties: striated, including the skeletal muscles, in which contraction is voluntary, and the cardiac muscle; and smooth, or nonstriated, including all the involuntary muscles except the heart. Striated muscles are covered with a thin layer of connective tissue (epimysium) from which septa (perimysium) pass, dividing the muscle into fasciculi containing parallel fibers separated by connective tissue septa (endomysium). Each fiber consists of sarcoplasm composed of alternate light and dark portions (whence the name striated muscle); each contains embedded in it the myofibrils and is surrounded by sarcolemma. Smooth muscles are composed of elongated, spindle-shaped, nucleated cells arranged parallel to one another and to the long axis of the muscle, and these cells are often grouped into bundles of varying size. The muscles, bundles, and cells are enclosed in an indifferent connective tissue material much as is found in striated muscles. Called also musculus[TA].

ARMS
coracobrachialis coracobrachial muscle: origin, coracoid process of scapula; insertion, medial surface of shaft of humerus; innervation, musculocutaneous nerve; action, flexes, adducts arm.
brachialis brachial muscle: origin, anterior surface of humerus; insertion, coronoid process of ulna; innervation, radial, musculocutaneous nerve; action, flexes forearm.
hypothenar  the intrinsic muscles of the little finger; flexing, abducting, and opposing it, and consisting of the palmaris brevis, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi muscles.
palmar aponeurosis Palmar aponeurosis. A fifth longitudinal band, radiating toward the base of the thumb, is sometimes present.
abductor pollicis brevis short abductor muscle of thumb: origin, scaphoid, ridge of trapezium, flexor retinaculum of hand; insertion, lateral surface of base of proximal phalanx of thumb; innervation, median nerve; action, abducts thumb
flexor retinaculum a fibrous band forming the carpal tunnel, through which pass the tendons of the flexor muscles of the hand and fingers
palmaris longus origin, medial epicondyle of humerus; insertion, flexor retinaculum of hand, palmar aponeurosis; innervation, median nerve; action, flexes wrist joint, anchors skin and fascia of hand.
flexor carpi radialis radial flexor muscle of wrist: origin, medial epicondyle of humerus; insertion, base of second metacarpal; innervation, median nerve; action, flexes and abducts wrist joint.
brachioradials  
biceps a muscle having two heads. The biceps muscle of the upper limb flexes and supinates the forearm; the biceps muscle of the thigh flexes and rotates the lower limb laterally and extends the thigh.
triceps a muscle having three heads
flexor carpi ulnaris ulnar flexor muscle of wrist (2 heads): origin,HUMERAL HEAD—medial epicondyle of humerus, ULNAR HEAD—olecranon, ulna, intermuscular septum; insertion, pisiform bone, hook of hamate bone, proximal end of fifth metacarpal bone; innervation, ulnar nerve; action, flexes and adducts wrist joint.
flexor digitorum superficialis superficial flexor muscle of fingers (2 heads): origin,HUMEROULNAR HEAD—medial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process of ulna, RADIAL HEAD— oblique line of radius, anterior border; insertion, sides of middle phalanges of four (nonthumb) fingers; innervation, median nerve; action, primarily flexes middle phalanges
supinate the act of turning the palm forward or upward, or of raising the medial margin of the foot.
supination the act of assuming the supine position; placing or lying on the back. Applied to the hand, the act of turning the palm upward
pronate to subject to pronation
pronation the act of assuming the prone position, or the state of being prone. Applied to the hand, turning the palm backward (posteriorly) or downward, performed by medial rotation of the forearm. Applied to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements taking place in the tarsal and metatarsal joints and resulting in lowering of the medial margin of the foot, hence of the longitudinal arch
flex to bend or put in a state of flexion
flexion the act of bending or the condition of being bent.
extend   in obstetrics, the normal bending forward of the head of the fetus in the uterus or birth canal so that the chin rests on the chest, thereby presenting the smallest diameter of the vertex
digits a finger or toe. adj., dig´ital., adj.
pollex Latin word meaning thumb;; a term used in anatomy.
Pollex Valgus deviation of the thumb toward the ulnar side
Pollex Varus deviation of the thumb toward the radial side
anconeus origin, back of lateral epicondyle of humerus; insertion, olecranon and posterior surface of ulna; innervation, radial nerve; action, extends forearm.
extensor digiti minimi extensor muscle of little finger: origin, common extensor tendon and adjacent intermuscular septa; insertion, extensor expansion of little finger; innervation, deep branch of radial nerve; action, extends little finger.
extensor digitorum muscle extensor muscle of fingers: origin, lateral epicondyle of humerus; insertion, extensor expansion of each (nonthumb) finger; innervation, posterior interosseus nerve; action, extends wrist joint and phalanges.
extensor digitorum Communis  
flexor pollicis longus  long flexor muscle of thumb: origin, anterior surface of radius, interosseous membrane, and medial epicondyle of humerus or coronoid process of ulna; insertion, base of distal phalanx of thumb; innervation, anterior interosseous nerve; action, flexes thumb.
pronator teres (2 heads): origin,HUMERAL HEAD—medial epicondyle of humerus, ULNAR HEAD—coronoid process of ulna; insertion, lateral surface of radius; innervation, median nerve; action, flexes elbow and pronates forearm.
epicondyle an eminence upon a bone, above its condyle.
pronator quadratus origin, anterior surface and border of distal third or fourth of shaft of ulna; insertion, anterior surface and border of distal fourth of shaft of radius; innervation, anterior interosseous nerve; action, pronates forearm
supinator origin, lateral epicondyle of humerus, ulna, elbow joint fascia; insertion, radius; innervation, deep radial nerve; action,supinates forearm.
retinaculum a structure that retains an organ or tissue in place.
thenar muscle the abductor and flexor muscles of the thumb
thenar the fleshy part of the hand at the base of the thumb
apneurosis pl. aponeuro´ses  a sheetlike tendinous expansion, mainly serving to connect a muscle with the parts it moves. adj., aponeurot´ic., adj.
longus Latin word meaning long; a term used in anatomy.
bevis  
radials radiating; spreading outward from a common center.  pertaining to a radius.
ulnaris Latin word meaning pertaining to the ulna, ulnar;. A term used in anatomy.
flexor retinaculum - retinacula a fibrous band forming the carpal tunnel, through which pass the tendons of the flexor muscles of the hand and fingers

LEGS

Tensor fasciae latae   origin, iliac crest; insertion, iliotibial tract of fascia lata; innervation, superior gluteal nerve; action, flexes, rotates thigh medially.
Sartorius origin, anterior superior iliac spine; insertion, proximal part of medial surface of tibia; innervation, femoral nerve; action, flexes leg at knee and thigh at pelvis.
rectus femoris origin, anterior inferior iliac spine, rim of acetabulum; insertion, base of patella, tuberosity of tibia; innervation, femoral nerve; action, extends knee, flexes thigh at hip.
vastus lateralis origin, lateral aspect of femur; insertion, patella, common tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle; innervation, femoral nerve; action, extends leg.
peroneus longus long peroneal muscle: origin, lateral condyle of tibia, head and lateral surface of fibula; insertion, medial cuneiform bone, first metatarsal bone; innervation, superficial peroneal nerve; action, abducts, everts, plantar flexes foot.
peroneus brevis short peroneal muscle: origin, lateral surface of fibula; insertion, tuberosity on base of fifth metatarsal bone; innervation, superficial peroneal nerve; action, everts, abducts, plantar flexes foot.
lateral malleolus - Medial (Middle) malleolus a rounded process.either of the two rounded prominences on either side of the ankle joint; the lateral (or fibular, external, or outer) malleolus is at the lower end of the fibula and the medial (or tibial, internal, or inner) malleolus is at the lower end of the tibia. adj. malle´olar., adj.
 
extensor digitorum longus long extensor muscle of toes: origin, anterior surface of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia, interosseous membrane; insertion, extensor expansion of each of the four lateral toes: innervation, deep peroneal nerve; action, extends toes.
adductor magnus great adductor muscle (2 parts): origin,DEEP PART—inferior ramus of pubis, ramus of ischium, SUPERFICIAL PART—ischial tuberosity; insertion,DEEP PART—linea aspera of femur, SUPERFICIAL PART—adductor tubercle of femur; innervation,DEEP PART—obturator nerve, SUPERFICIAL PART—sciatic nerve; action,DEEP PART—adducts thigh, SUPERFICIAL PART—extends thigh
semitendinosus semitendinous muscle: origin, tuberosity of ischium; insertion, upper part of medial surface of tibia; innervation, tibial nerve; action, flexes and rotates leg medially, extends thigh.
semimembranosus semimembranous muscle: origin, tuberosity of ischium; insertion, medial condyle and border of tibia, lateral condyle of femur; innervation, tibial nerve; action, flexes and rotates leg medially, extends thigh at hip.
Calcaneal (Achilles) Tendon BURSA a bursa between the calcaneal tendon and the back of the calcaneus.
iliopsoas a compound muscle consisting of the iliacus and the psoas major muscles.
pectineus pectineal muscle: origin, pectineal line of pubis; insertion, pectineal line of femur; innervation, obturator and femoral nerves; action, flexes, adducts thigh
adductor longus long adductor muscle: origin, crest and symphysis of pubis; insertion, linea aspera of femur; innervation, obturator nerve; action, adducts, rotates, flexes thigh.
gracilis origin, body and inferior ramus of pubis; insertion, medial surface of shaft of tibia; innervation, obturator nerve; action, adducts thigh, flexes knee joint.
vastus medialis origin, medial aspect of femur; insertion, patella, common tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle; innervation, femoral nerve; action, extends leg
gastrocnemius origin,MEDIAL HEAD—popliteal surface of femur, upper part of medial condyle, and capsule of knee, LATERAL HEAD—lateral condyle and capsule of knee; insertion, aponeurosis unites with tendon of soleus to form Achilles tendon; innervation, tibial nerve; action, plantar flexes ankle joint, flexes knee joint
soleus origin, fibula, tibia, tendinous arch between tibia and fibula and passing over popliteal vessels; insertion, calcaneus by Achilles tendon; innervation, tibial nerve; action, plantar flexes foot.
extensor retinaculum a fibrous band forming the carpal tunnel, through which pass the tendons of the flexor muscles of the hand and fingers
anterior tibial veins that follow the course of the anterior tibial artery. They unite with the posterior tibial veins to form the popliteal vein.
gastrocnemius   origin,MEDIAL HEAD—popliteal surface of femur, upper part of medial condyle, and capsule of knee, LATERAL HEAD—lateral condyle and capsule of knee; insertion, aponeurosis unites with tendon of soleus to form Achilles tendon; innervation, tibial nerve; action, plantar flexes ankle joint, flexes knee joint
extensor hallucis longus long extensor muscle of great toe: origin, front of fibula and interosseous membrane; insertion, base of distal phalanx of great toe; innervation, deep peroneal nerve; action, dorsiflexes ankle joint, extends great toe.
gluteus maximus origin, posterior aspect of ilium, posterior surface of sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament, fascia covering gluteus medius muscle; insertion, iliotibial tract of fascia lata, gluteal tuberosity of femur; innervation, inferior gluteal nerve; action, extends, abducts, and rotates thigh laterally.
greater trochanter either of two broad, flat processes on the femur. The greater trochanter is at the upper end of the bone's lateral surface, and the lesser trochanter is a short conical process on the posterior border of the neck of the femur. adj., trochanter´ic, trochanter´ian., adj.
iliotibial tract a thickened longitudinal band of fascia lata extending from the tensor muscle downward to the lateral condyle of the tibia
biceps a muscle having two heads. The biceps muscle of the upper limb flexes and supinates the forearm; the biceps muscle of the thigh flexes and rotates the lower limb laterally and extends the thigh.
peroneous longus long peroneal muscle: origin, lateral condyle of tibia, head and lateral surface of fibula; insertion, medial cuneiform bone, first metatarsal bone; innervation, superficial peroneal nerve; action, abducts, everts, plantar flexes foot.
peroneus bevis short peroneal muscle: origin, lateral surface of fibula; insertion, tuberosity on base of fifth metatarsal bone; innervation, superficial peroneal nerve; action, everts, abducts, plantar flexes foot
 

TORSO

ANTERIOR  
Trapezius origin, occipital bone, nuchal ligament, spinous processes of seventh cervical and all thoracic vertebrae; insertion, clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula; innervation, accessory nerve and cervical plexus; action, elevates shoulder, rotates scapula to raise shoulder in abduction of arm, draws scapula backward
deltoid origin, clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula; insertion, deltoid tuberosity of humerus; innervation, axillary nerve; action, abducts, flexes, extends arm. It is the muscular cap of the shoulder, and is often used as a site for an intramuscular injection.
pectoralis major greater pectoral muscle: origin, clavicle, sternum, six upper costal cartilages, aponeurosis of external oblique muscle of abdomen; the origins are reflected in the subdivision of the muscle into clavicular, sternocostal, and abdominal parts; insertion, crest of intertubercular groove of humerus; innervation, medial and lateral pectoral nerves; action, adducts, flexes, rotates arm medially
serratus anterior origin, eight or nine upper ribs; insertion, medial border of scapula; innervation, long thoracic nerve; action, draws scapula forward; rotates scapula to raise shoulder in abduction of arm.
sternocleidomastoid (2 heads): origin,STERNAL HEAD—manubrium sterni, CLAVICULAR HEAD—superior surface of medial third of clavicle; insertion, mastoid process and superior nuchal line of occipital bone; innervation, accessory nerve and cervical plexus; action, flexes vertebral column, rotates head upward and to opposite side
external oblique origin, lower eight ribs at costal cartilages; insertion, crest of ilium, linea alba through rectus sheath; innervation, seventh to twelfth intercostal nerves; action, flexes and rotates vertebral column, increases intra-abdominal pressure, acts as accessory respiratory muscle.
rectus abdominis origin, pubic crest and symphysis; insertion, xiphoid process, cartilages of fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs; innervation, branches of lower thoracic nerves; action, flexes lumbar vertebrae, supports abdomen
   
 
Not Muscle:  
Linea Alba - white line; the tendinous median line on the anterior abdominal wall between the two rectus muscles
Umbilicus the (usually) depressed scar marking the site where the umbilical cord entered the fetus; called also navel
 
POSTERIOR  
Trapezius origin, occipital bone, nuchal ligament, spinous processes of seventh cervical and all thoracic vertebrae; insertion, clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula; innervation, accessory nerve and cervical plexus; action, elevates shoulder, rotates scapula to raise shoulder in abduction of arm, draws scapula backward
infraspinatus origin, infraspinous fossa of scapula; insertion, greater tubercle of humerus; innervation, suprascapular nerve; action, rotates humerus laterally
teres major  origin, inferior angle of scapula; insertion, lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus; innervation, lower subscapular nerve; action, adducts, extends, rotates arm medially.
latissimus dorsi origin, spines of lower thoracic vertebrae, lumbar and sacral vertebrae through attachment to thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, lower ribs, inferior angle of scapula; insertion, floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus; innervation, thoracodorsal nerve; action, adducts, extends, and rotates humerus medially
gluteus maximus origin, posterior aspect of ilium, posterior surface of sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament, fascia covering gluteus medius muscle; insertion, iliotibial tract of fascia lata, gluteal tuberosity of femur; innervation, inferior gluteal nerve; action, extends, abducts, and rotates thigh laterally
rhomboideus  
supraspinatus supraspinous muscle: origin, supraspinous fossa of scapula; insertion, greater tubercle of humerus; innervation, suprascapular nerve; action, abducts humerus.
iliocostalis dorsi iliocostal muscle: the lateral division of the erector spinae muscle, which includes the iliocostalis cervicis, iliocostalis thoracis, and iliocostalis lumborum muscles.
deltoid origin, clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula; insertion, deltoid tuberosity of humerus; innervation, axillary nerve; action, abducts, flexes, extends arm. It is the muscular cap of the shoulder, and is often used as a site for an intramuscular injection.
teres minor origin, lateral margin of scapula; insertion, greater tubercle of humerus; innervation, axillary nerve; action, rotates arm laterally
lumbar aponeurosis - dorsolumbar fascia lumbar - pl. aponeuro´ses  a sheetlike tendinous expansion, mainly serving to connect a muscle with the parts it moves. adj., aponeurot´ic., adj.
gluteus medius origin, lateral surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal lines; insertion, greater trochanter of femur; innervation, superior gluteal nerve; action, abducts and rotates thigh medially
 

HEAD

frontalis Latin word meaning related to the forehead, or frontal
temporalis temporal muscle: origin, temporal fossa and fascia; insertion, coronoid process of mandible; innervation, mandibular nerve; action, closes jaws.
orbicularis Oculi the oval sphincter muscle surrounding the eyelids, consisting of three parts: origin,ORBITAL PART—medial margin of orbit, including frontal process of maxilla, PALPEBRAL PART— medial palpebral ligament, LACRIMAL PART—posterior lacrimal crest; insertion,ORBITAL PART—near origin after encircling orbit, PALPEBRAL PART—fibers intertwine to form lateral palpebral raphe, LACRIMAL PART—lateral palpebral raphe, upper and lower tarsi; innervation, facial nerve; action, closes eyelids, wrinkles forehead, compresses lacrimal sac.
buccinator origin, buccinator ridge of mandible, alveolar process of maxilla, pterygomandibular ligament; insertion, orbicularis oris muscle at angle of mouth; innervation, buccal branch of facial nerve; action, compresses cheek and pulls back angle of the mouth
orbicularis oris a name applied to a complicated sphincter muscle of the mouth, consisting of a labial part, fibers restricted to the lips, and a marginal part, fibers blending with those of adjacent muscles; innervation, facial nerve; action, closes and protrudes lips.
triangularis Latin word meaning triangular; a term used in anatomy.
corrugator supercilii origin, medial end of superciliary arch; insertion, skin of eyebrow; innervation, facial nerve; action, draws eyebrow downward and and toward the middle of the face.
nasalis origin, maxilla; insertion,ALAR PART—ala nasi, TRANSVERSE PART—by aponeurotic expansion with fellow of opposite side; innervation, facial nerve; action,ALAR PART—aids in widening nostril, TRANSVERSE PART—pushes down cartilage of nose.
levator labii Superioris levator muscle of upper lip: origin, lower orbital margin; insertion, muscle of upper lip; innervation, facial nerve; action, raises upper lip.
greater zygomatic - Zygomaticus Major greater zygomatic muscle: origin, zygomatic bone in front of temporal process; insertion, corner of mouth; innervation, facia nervel; action, draws corner of mouth backward and upward.
masseter origin,SUPERFICIAL PART—zygomatic process of maxilla and inferior border of zygomatic arch, DEEP PART—inferior border and medial surface of zygomatic arch; insertion,SUPERFICIAL PART—angle and ramus of mandible, DEEP PART—superior half of ramus and lateral surface of coronoid process of mandible; innervation, masseteric nerve, from mandibular division of trigeminal nerve; action, raises mandible, closes jaws
platysma a subcutaneous neck muscle extending from the neck to the clavicle, acting to wrinkle the skin of the neck and to depress the jaw
Cant be seen on Diagram  
depressor angull oris depressor muscle of angle of mouth: origin, lower border of mandible; insertion, corner (angle) of mouth; innervation, facial nerve; action, pulls down corner of mouth.
depressor labii inferioris depressor muscle of lower lip: origin, anterior portion of lower border of mandible; insertion, orbicularis oris muscle and skin of lower lip; innervation, facial nerve; action, depresses (pushes down) lower lip
lateral pterygoid origin,SUPERIOR HEAD—infratemporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid and infratemporal crest; INFERIOR HEAD—lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate; insertion, neck of condyle of mandible, temporomandibular joint capsule; innervation, mandibular nerve; action, protrudes mandible, opens jaws, moves mandible from side to side.
medial pterygoid origin, medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate, tuberosity of maxilla; insertion, medial surface of ramus and angle of mandible; innervation, mandibular nerve; action, closes jaws.
mentalis origin, incisive fossa of mandible; insertion, skin of chin; innervation, facial nerve; action, wrinkles skin of chin
occipitalis the base of the skull (called the foramen occipitalis)
risorius origin, fascia over masseter muscle; insertion, skin at corner of mouth; innervation, buccal branch of facial nerve; action, pulls corner of mouth laterally.
Splenius Capitis origin, lower half of nuchal ligament, spinous processes of seventh cervical and three or four upper thoracic vertebrae; insertion, mastoid part of temporal bone, occipital bone; innervation, middle and lower cervical nerves; action, extends, rotates head.
   
NECK  
Trapezius origin, occipital bone, nuchal ligament, spinous processes of seventh cervical and all thoracic vertebrae; insertion, clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula; innervation, accessory nerve and cervical plexus; action, elevates shoulder, rotates scapula to raise shoulder in abduction of arm, draws scapula backward
sternocleidomastoid (2 heads): origin,STERNAL HEAD—manubrium sterni, CLAVICULAR HEAD—superior surface of medial third of clavicle; insertion, mastoid process and superior nuchal line of occipital bone; innervation, accessory nerve and cervical plexus; action, flexes vertebral column, rotates head upward and to opposite side.
digastric origin,ANTERIOR BELLY—digastric fossa on lower border of mandible near symphysis, POSTERIOR BELLY—mastoid notch of temporal bone; insertion, intermediate tendon on hyoid bone; innervation,ANTERIOR BELLY—mylohyoid nerve, POSTERIOR BELLY—digastric branch of facial nerve; action, raises hyoid bone, lowers jaw.
hyoglossus hyoglossal muscle: origin, body and greater horn of hyoid bone; insertion, side of tongue; innervation, hypoglossal nerve; action, pushes down and pulls in tongue.
omohyoid origin, superior border of scapula; insertion, lateral border of hyoid bone; innervation, upper cervical nerve through ansa cervicalis; action, depresses hyoid bone. It consists of two bellies (superior and inferior) connected by a central tendon that is attached to the clavicle by a fibrous expansion of the cervical fascia
sternohyoid origin, manubrium sterni, posterior sternoclavicular ligament, clavicle; insertion, body of hyoid bone; innervation, upper ansa cervicalis; action, depresses hyoid bone and larynx
 

Muscle
Muscles are often referred to by their Latin names with the omission of the word musculus, e.g., rectus abdominis for musculus rectus abdominis. For muscles so called, see under musculus.


abductor digiti minimi muscle of hand,
musculus abductor digiti minimi manus.
abductor digiti minimi muscle of foot, musculus abductor digiti minimi pedis.
abductor muscle of great toe, abductor hallucis muscle, musculus abductor hallucis.
abductor muscle of little finger, musculus abductor digiti minimi manus.
abductor muscle of little toe, musculus abductor digiti minimi pedis.
abductor pollicis brevis muscle, musculus abductor pollicis brevis.
abductor pollicis longus muscle, musculus abductor pollicis longus.
abductor muscle of thumb, long, musculus abductor pollicis longus.
abductor muscle of thumb, short, musculus abductor pollicis brevis.
adductor muscle, great, musculus adductor magnus.
adductor muscle, long, musculus adductor longus.
adductor muscle, short, musculus adductor brevis.
adductor muscle, smallest, musculus adductor minimus.
adductor brevis muscle, musculus adductor brevis.
adductor muscle of great toe, musculus adductor hallucis.
adductor hallucis muscle, musculus adductor hallucis.
adductor longus muscle, musculus adductor longus.
adductor magnus muscle, musculus adductor magnus.
adductor minimus muscle, musculus adductor minimus.
adductor pollicis muscle, musculus adductor pollicis.
adductor muscle of thumb, musculus adductor pollicis.
Aeby muscle, musculus depressor labii inferioris.
agonistic muscle, a muscle opposed in action by another muscle (the antagonistic muscle). Called also agonist.
Albinus muscle, musculus risorius.musculus scalenus medius.
anconeus muscle, musculus anconeus.
anconeus muscle, lateral, caput laterale musculi tricipitis brachii.
anconeus muscle, medial, caput mediale musculi tricipitis brachii.
anconeus muscle, short, caput laterale musculi tricipitis brachii.
anorectoperineal muscles, musculi anorectoperineales.
antagonistic muscle, a muscle that counteracts the action of another muscle (the agonistic muscle). Called also antagonist.
antigravity muscles, those muscles, mainly extensors of the knees, hips, and back, that by their tone resist the constant pull of gravity in the maintenance of normal posture.
antitragicus muscle, muscle of antitragus, musculus antitragicus.
appendicular muscles, the muscles of a limb.
arrector muscle of hair, arrector pili muscle, musculus arrector pili.
articular muscle, musculus articularis.
articular muscle of elbow, musculus articularis cubiti.
articular muscle of knee, musculus articularis genus.
articularis cubiti muscle, musculus articularis cubiti.
articularis genus muscle, musculus articularis genus.
aryepiglottic muscle, pars aryepiglottica musculi arytenoidei obliqui.
arytenoid muscle, oblique, musculus arytenoideus obliquus.
arytenoid muscle, transverse, musculus arytenoideus transversus.
muscles of auditory ossicles, musculi ossiculorum auditoriorum.
auricular muscles, the extrinsic auricular muscles; see musculus auricularis anterior, posterior, and superior.musculi auriculares.
auricular muscle, anterior, musculus auricularis anterior.
auricular muscle, oblique, musculus obliquus auriculae.
auricular muscle, posterior, musculus auricularis posterior.
auricular muscle, superior, musculus auricularis superior.
auricular muscle, transverse, musculus transversus auriculae.
Bell muscle, muscular strands between the ureteral orifices and the uvula vesicae in the male, marking the boundary of the trigone of the urinary bladder. Called also ureteric bridge.
biceps muscle of arm, biceps brachii muscle, musculus biceps brachii.
biceps femoris muscle, biceps muscle of thigh, musculus biceps femoris.
bipennate muscle, musculus pennatus.
Bowman muscle, musculus ciliaris.
brachial muscle, brachialis muscle, musculus brachialis.
brachioradial muscle, brachioradialis muscle, musculus brachioradialis.
Braune muscle, musculus puborectalis.
bronchoesophageal muscle, bronchoesophageus muscle, musculus bronchooesophageus.
Brücke muscle, the longitudinal fibers of the ciliary muscle.
buccinator muscle, musculus buccinator.
buccopharyngeal muscle, pars buccopharyngea musculi constrictoris pharyngis superioris.
bulbocavernosus muscle, bulbocavernous muscle, bulbospongiosus muscle, musculus bulbospongiosus.
canine muscle, musculus levator anguli oris.
cardiac muscle, the muscle of the heart, comprising the chief component of the myocardium and lining the walls of the large vessels joined to the heart; it is composed of fibers of striated but involuntary muscle. The composition and organization of its fibers resemble those of skeletal muscle, but instead of forming a syncytium, its branched, mononucleate cells are linked end to end by intercalated disks that provide both mechanical and ionic coupling for coordination of the entire muscle. See Plate 35.
Casser muscle, casserian muscle, ligamentum mallei anterius.
ceratocricoid muscle, musculus ceratocricoideus.
ceratopharyngeal muscle, pars ceratopharyngea musculi constrictoris pharyngis medii.
cervical muscles, musculi colli.
Chassaignac axillary muscle, an occasional muscle bundle extending from the lower edge of the latissimus dorsi across the hollow of the axilla to the brachial fascia or to the lower border of the pectoralis minor.
chondroglossus muscle, musculus chondroglossus.
chondropharyngeal muscle, pars chondropharyngea musculi constrictoris pharyngis medii.
ciliary muscle, musculus ciliaris.
cleidohyoid muscle, a slip of muscle sometimes seen augmenting the sternohyoid muscle, extending from the hyoid bone to the clavicle.
coccygeal muscle, musculus ischiococcygeus.
compressor naris muscle, compressor muscle of naris, pars transversa musculi nasalis.
compressor urethrae muscle, musculus compressor urethrae.
congenerous muscles, muscles having a common action or function.
constrictor muscle of pharynx, inferior, musculus constrictor pharyngis inferior.
constrictor muscle of pharynx, middle, musculus constrictor pharyngis medius.
constrictor muscle of pharynx, superior, musculus constrictor pharyngis superior.
coracobrachial muscle, coracobrachialis muscle, musculus coracobrachialis.
corrugator muscle, superciliary, corrugator supercilii muscle, musculus corrugator supercilii.
Crampton muscle, the anterior portion of the ciliary muscle in birds.
cremaster muscle, musculus cremaster.
cricoarytenoid muscle, lateral, musculus cricoarytenoideus lateralis.
cricoarytenoid muscle, posterior, musculus cricoarytenoideus posterior.
cricopharyngeal muscle, pars cricopharyngea musculi constrictoris pharyngis inferioris.
cricothyroid muscle, musculus cricothyroideus.
cruciate muscle, a muscle in which the fiber bundles are arranged in the shape of an X. Called also musculus cruciatus.
cutaneous muscle, musculus cutaneus.
dartos muscle, dartos muscle of scrotum, musculus dartos (def. 1).tunica dartos (def. 1).
deltoid muscle, musculus deltoideus.
depressor muscle, superciliary, musculus depressor supercilii.
depressor muscle of angle of mouth, depressor anguli oris muscle, musculus depressor anguli oris.
depressor labii inferioris muscle, depressor muscle of lower lip, musculus depressor labii inferioris.
depressor muscle of nasal septum, musculus depressor septi nasi.
depressor septi nasi muscle, depressor muscle of septum of nose, musculus depressor septi nasi.
depressor supercilii muscle, musculus depressor supercilii.
detrusor muscle of bladder, detrusor urinae muscle, musculus detrusor vesicae urinariae.
diaphragmatic muscle, diaphragma (def. 1).
digastric muscle, musculus digastricus.
dilator muscle, musculus dilatator.
dilator naris muscle, dilator muscle of naris, pars alaris musculi nasalis.
dilator muscle of pupil, dilator pupillae muscle, musculus dilatator pupillae.
dorsal muscles, musculi dorsi.
double muscle, myofiber hyperplasia.
emergency muscles, muscles that ordinarily are not required to do something but that aid the prime movers when something is done that requires great force.
epicranial muscle, epicranius muscle, musculus epicranius.
epimeric muscle, a muscle derived from an epimere and innervated by a posterior ramus of a spinal nerve.
epitrochleoanconeus muscle, musculus epitrochleoanconaeus.
erector muscle of penis, musculus ischiocavernosus.
erector spinae muscle, erector muscle of spine, musculus erector spinae.
eustachian muscle, musculus tensor tympani.
muscles of expression, musculi faciei.
extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle, musculus extensor carpi radialis brevis.
extensor carpi radialis longus muscle, musculus extensor carpi radialis longus.
extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, musculus extensor carpi ulnaris.
extensor digiti minimi muscle, musculus extensor digiti minimi.
extensor digitorum muscle, musculus extensor digitorum.
extensor digitorum brevis muscle, musculus extensor digitorum brevis.
extensor digitorum longus muscle, musculus extensor digitorum longus.
extensor muscle of digits, common, extensor muscle of fingers, musculus extensor digitorum.
extensor muscle of fifth digit, proper, musculus extensor digiti minimi.
extensor muscle of great toe, long, musculus extensor hallucis longus.
extensor muscle of great toe, short, musculus extensor hallucis brevis.
extensor hallucis brevis muscle, musculus extensor hallucis brevis.
extensor hallucis longus muscle, musculus extensor hallucis longus.
extensor muscle of index finger, extensor indicis muscle, musculus extensor indicis.
extensor muscle of little finger, musculus extensor digiti minimi.
extensor pollicis brevis muscle, musculus extensor digitorum brevis.
extensor pollicis longus muscle, musculus extensor pollicis longus.
extensor muscle of thumb, long, musculus extensor pollicis longus.
extensor muscle of thumb, short, musculus extensor pollicis brevis.
extensor muscle of toes, long, musculus extensor digitorum longus.
extensor muscle of toes, short, musculus extensor digitorum brevis.
extensor muscle of wrist, long radial, musculus extensor carpi radialis longus.
extensor muscle of wrist, short radial, musculus extensor carpi radialis brevis.
extensor muscle of wrist, ulnar, musculus extensor carpi ulnaris.
extraocular muscles, musculi externi bulbi oculi.
extrinsic muscle, a muscle that does not originate in the same limb or part in which it is inserted.

muscles of eye, musculi externi bulbi oculi.
facial muscles, muscles of facial expression, musculi faciei.
facial and masticatory muscles, musculi faciales et masticatores.
fast muscle, white m.
muscles of fauces, see musculi palati mollis et faucium.
femoral muscle, musculus vastus intermedius.
fibular muscle, long, musculus fibularis longus.
fibular muscle, short, musculus fibularis brevis.
fibular muscle, third, musculus fibularis tertius.
fibularis brevis muscle, musculus fibularis brevis.
fibularis longus muscle, musculus fibularis longus.
fibularis tertius muscle, musculus fibularis tertius.
fixation muscles, fixator muscles, accessory muscles that serve to steady a part.
flexor muscle, accessory, musculus quadratus plantae.
flexor carpi radialis muscle, musculus flexor carpi radialis.
flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, musculus flexor carpi ulnaris.
flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle of hand, musculus flexor digiti minimi brevis manus.
flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle of foot, musculus flexor digiti minimi brevis pedis.
flexor digitorum brevis muscle, musculus flexor digitorum brevis.
flexor digitorum longus muscle, musculus flexor digitorum longus.
flexor digitorum profundus muscle, musculus flexor digitorum profundus.
flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, musculus flexor digitorum superficialis.
flexor muscle of fingers, deep, musculus flexor digitorum profundus.
flexor muscle of fingers, superficial, musculus flexor digitorum superficialis.
flexor muscle of great toe, long, musculus flexor hallucis longus.
flexor muscle of great toe, short, musculus flexor hallucis brevis.
flexor hallucis brevis muscle, musculus flexor hallucis brevis.
flexor hallucis longus muscle, musculus flexor hallucis longus.
flexor muscle of little finger, short, musculus flexor digiti minimi brevis manus.
flexor muscle of little toe, short, musculus flexor digiti minimi brevis pedis.
flexor pollicis brevis muscle, musculus flexor pollicis brevis.
flexor pollicis longus muscle, musculus flexor pollicis longus.
flexor muscle of thumb, long, musculus flexor pollicis longus.
flexor muscle of thumb, short, musculus flexor pollicis brevis.
flexor muscle of toes, long, musculus flexor digitorum longus.
flexor muscle of toes, short, musculus flexor digitorum brevis.
flexor muscle of wrist, radial, musculus flexor carpi radialis.
flexor muscle of wrist, ulnar, musculus flexor carpi ulnaris.
Folius muscle, ligamentum mallei laterale.
frontal muscle, venter frontalis musculi occipitofrontalis.
fusiform muscle, musculus fusiformis.
gastrocnemius muscle, musculus gastrocnemius.
gastrocnemius muscle, lateral, caput laterale musculi gastrocnemii.
gastrocnemius muscle, medial, caput mediale musculi gastrocnemii.
Gavard muscle, the oblique fibers of the muscular coat of the stomach (see tunica muscularis gastris).
gemellus muscle, inferior, musculus gemellus inferior.
gemellus muscle, superior, musculus gemellus superior.
genioglossus muscle, musculus genioglossus.
geniohyoid muscle, musculus geniohyoideus.
glossopalatine muscle, musculus palatoglossus.
glossopharyngeal muscle, pars glossopharyngea musculi constrictoris pharyngis superioris.
gluteal muscle, greatest, musculus gluteus maximus.
gluteal muscle, least, musculus gluteus minimus.
gluteal muscle, middle, musculus gluteus medius.
gluteus maximus muscle, musculus gluteus maximus.
gluteus medius muscle, musculus gluteus medius.
gluteus minimus muscle, musculus gluteus minimus.
gracilis muscle, musculus gracilis.
Guthrie muscle, see musculus sphincter urethrae externus urethrae femininae and musculus sphincter urethrae externus urethrae masculinae.
hamstring muscles, the muscles of the back of the thigh, including the biceps femoris, the semitendinosus, and the semimembranosus.
helicis major muscle, musculus helicis major.
helicis minor muscle, musculus helicis minor.
muscle of helix, greater, musculus helicis major.
muscle of helix, lesser, musculus helicis minor.
Hilton muscle, musculus aryepiglotticus.
Horner muscle, pars profunda partis palpebralis musculi orbicularis oculi.
Houston muscle, fibers of the bulbocavernosus muscle compressing the dorsal vein of the penis.
hyoglossal muscle, hyoglossus muscle, musculus hyoglossus.
muscles of hyoid bone, see musculi infrahyoidei and musculi suprahyoidei.
hypaxial muscles, the musculus longus capitis, musculus longus colli, the vertebral portion of the diaphragm, and the musculus sacrococcygeus anterior; called also subvertebral m's.
hypomeric muscle, a muscle derived from a hypomere and innervated by an anterior ramus of a spinal nerve.
hypothenar muscles, the intrinsic muscles of the little finger; flexing, abducting, and opposing it, and comprising the palmaris brevis, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi.
iliac muscle, iliacus muscle, musculus iliacus.
iliococcygeal muscle, iliococcygeus muscle, musculus iliococcygeus.
iliocostal muscle, musculus iliocostalis.
iliocostal muscle, lumbar, musculus iliocostalis lumborum.
iliocostal muscle of neck, musculus iliocostalis cervicis.
iliocostal muscle of thorax, musculus iliocostalis thoracis.
iliocostalis muscle, musculus iliocostalis.
iliocostalis cervicis muscle, musculus iliocostalis cervicis.
iliocostalis lumborum muscle, musculus iliocostalis lumborum.
iliopsoas muscle, musculus iliopsoas.
incisive muscles of inferior lip, musculi incisivi labii inferioris.
incisive muscles of lower lip, musculi incisivi labii inferioris.
incisive muscles of superior lip, musculi incisivi labii superioris.
incisive muscles of upper lip, musculi incisivi labii superioris.
infrahyoid muscles, musculi infrahyoidei.
infraspinatus muscle, infraspinous muscle, musculus infraspinatus.
inspiratory muscles, the muscles that act during inhalation, such as the diaphragm and the intercostal and pectoral muscles.
intercostal muscles, external, musculi intercostales externi.
intercostal muscles, innermost, musculi intercostales intimi.
intercostal muscles, internal, musculi intercostales interni.
interfoveolar muscle, ligamentum interfoveolare.
interossei muscles, palmar, musculi interossei palmares.
interossei muscles, plantar, musculi interossei plantares.
interossei muscles of foot, dorsal, musculi interossei dorsales pedis.
interossei muscles of hand, dorsal, musculi interossei dorsales manus.
interosseous muscles, palmar, musculi interossei palmares.
interosseous muscles, plantar, musculi interossei plantares.
interosseous muscles, volar, musculi interossei palmares.
interosseous muscles of foot, dorsal, musculi interossei dorsales pedis.
interosseous muscles of hand, dorsal, musculi interossei dorsales manus.
interspinal muscles, musculi interspinales.
interspinal muscles, lumbar, musculi interspinales lumborum.
interspinal muscles of neck, musculi interspinales cervicis.
interspinal muscles of thorax, musculi interspinales thoracis.
interspinales muscles, musculi interspinales.
interspinales cervicis muscles, musculi interspinales cervicis.
interspinales lumborum muscles, musculi interspinales lumborum.
interspinales thoracis muscles, musculi interspinales thoracis.
intertransversarii muscles, musculi intertransversarii.
intertransversarii muscles, anterior cervical, musculi intertransversarii anteriores cervicis.
intertransversarii muscles, lateral lumbar, musculi intertransversarii laterales lumborum.
intertransversarii muscles, lateral posterior cervical, musculi intertransversarii posteriores laterales cervicis.
intertransversarii muscles, medial lumbar, musculi intertransversarii mediales lumborum.
intertransversarii muscles, medial posterior cervical, musculi intertransversarii posteriores mediales cervicis.
intertransversarii muscles, thoracic, musculi intertransversarii thoracis.
intertransverse muscles, musculi intertransversarii.
intertransverse muscles, lateral lumbar, musculi intertransversarii laterales lumborum.
intertransverse muscles, medial lumbar, musculi intertransversarii mediales lumborum.
intertransverse muscles of neck, anterior, musculi intertransversarii anteriores cervicis.
intertransverse muscles of neck, lateral posterior, musculi intertransversarii posteriores laterales cervicis.
intertransverse muscles of neck, medial posterior, musculi intertransversarii posteriores mediales cervicis.
intertransverse muscles of thorax, musculi intertransversarii thoracis.
intra-auricular muscles, the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles.
intraocular muscles, the intrinsic muscles of the eyeball.
intrinsic muscle, a muscle that is contained (origin, belly, and insertion) in the same limb or structure.

involuntary muscle, a muscle that is not under the control of the will; the term includes both smooth muscle, composed of nonstriated fibers, as well as cardiac muscle, composed of striated fibers.
iridic muscles, the muscles controlling the iris.
ischiocavernosus muscle, ischiocavernous muscle, musculus ischiocavernosus.
ischiococcygeal muscle, ischiococcygeus muscle, musculus ischiococcygeus.
Jarjavay muscle, a muscle arising from the ramus of the ischium and inserting in the constrictor muscle of the vagina, which acts to depress the urethra.
Jung muscle, musculus pyramidalis auriculae.
Koyter muscle, musculus corrugator supercilii.
Landström muscle, minute muscle fibers in the fascia around and behind the eyeball, attached in front to the anterior orbital fascia and eyelids.
Langer muscle, muscular fibers from the insertion of the pectoralis major muscle over the bicipital groove to the insertion of the latissimus dorsi.
muscles of larynx, musculi laryngis.
latissimus dorsi muscle, musculus latissimus dorsi.
levator muscle of angle of mouth, levator anguli oris muscle, musculus levator anguli oris.
levator ani muscle, musculus levator ani.
levatores costarum muscles, musculi levatores costarum.
levatores costarum breves muscles, musculi levatores costarum breves.
levatores costarum longi muscles, musculi levatores costarum longi.
levator glandulae thyroideae muscle, musculus levator glandulae thyroideae.
levator labii superioris muscle, musculus levator labii superioris.
levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle, musculus levator labii superioris alaeque nasi.
levator palpebrae superioris muscle, musculus levator palpebrae superioris.
levator muscle of prostate, musculus puboprostaticus.
levator muscles of ribs, musculi levatores costarum.
levator muscles of ribs, long, musculi levatores costarum longi.
levator muscles of ribs, short, musculi levatores costarum breves.
levator muscle of scapula, levator scapulae muscle, musculus levator scapulae.
levator muscle of thyroid gland, musculus levator glandulae thyroideae.
levator muscle of upper eyelid, musculus levator palpebrae superioris.
levator muscle of upper lip, musculus levator labii superioris.
levator muscle of upper lip and ala of nose, musculus levator labii superioris alaeque nasi.
levator veli palatini muscle, musculus levator veli palatini.
lingual muscles, musculi linguae.
long muscle of head, musculus longus capitis.
long muscle of neck, musculus longus colli.
longissimus muscle, musculus longissimus.
longissimus muscle of back, musculus longissimus thoracis.
longissimus capitis muscle, musculus longissimus capitis.
longissimus cervicis muscle, musculus longissimus cervicis.
longissimus muscle of head, musculus longissimus capitis.
longissimus muscle of neck, musculus longissimus cervicis.
longissimus thoracis muscle, longissimus muscle of thorax, musculus longissimus thoracis.
longitudinal muscle of tongue, inferior, musculus longitudinalis inferior linguae.
longitudinal muscle of tongue, superior, musculus longitudinalis superior linguae.
longus capitis muscle, musculus longus capitis.
longus colli muscle, musculus longus colli.
muscles of lower limb, musculi membri inferioris.
lumbrical muscles of foot, musculi lumbricales pedis.
lumbrical muscles of hand, musculi lumbricales manus.
masseter muscle, musculus masseter.
muscles of mastication, masticatory muscles, musculi masticatorii.
mentalis muscle, musculus mentalis.
Merkel muscle, musculus ceratocricoideus.
mesothenar muscle, musculus adductor pollicis.
Müller muscle, fibrae circulares musculi ciliaris.musculus orbitalis.
multifidus muscles, musculi multifidi.
multipennate muscle, musculus multipennatus.
mylohyoid muscle, musculus mylohyoideus.
mylopharyngeal muscle, pars mylopharyngea musculi constrictoris pharyngis superioris.
nasal muscle, nasalis muscle, musculus nasalis.
muscles of neck, musculi colli.
nonstriated muscle, nonstriated involuntary muscle, smooth m.
oblique muscle of abdomen, external, musculus obliquus externus abdominis.
oblique muscle of abdomen, internal, musculus obliquus internus abdominis.
oblique muscle of auricle, musculus obliquus auriculae.
oblique muscle of eyeball, inferior, musculus obliquus inferior bulbi.
oblique muscle of eyeball, superior, musculus obliquus superior bulbi.
oblique muscle of head, inferior, musculus obliquus capitis inferior.
oblique muscle of head, superior, musculus obliquus capitis superior.
obliquus capitis inferior muscle, musculus obliquus capitis inferior.
obliquus capitis superior muscle, musculus obliquus capitis superior.
obturator muscle, external, musculus obturatorius externus.
obturator muscle, internal, musculus obturatorius internus.
occipital muscle, venter occipitalis musculi occipitofrontalis.
occipitofrontal muscle, occipitofrontalis muscle, musculus occipitofrontalis.
ocular muscles, oculorotatory muscles, musculi externi bulbi oculi.
Oddi muscle, musculus sphincter ampullae hepatopancreaticae.
Oehl muscle, muscle fibers in the chordae tendineae of the left atrioventricular valve.
omohyoid muscle, musculus omohyoideus.
opponens digiti minimi muscle, musculus opponens digiti minimi.
opponens pollicis muscle, musculus opponens pollicis.
opposing muscle of little finger, musculus opponens digiti minimi.
opposing muscle of thumb, musculus opponens pollicis.
orbicular muscle, musculus orbicularis.
orbicular muscle of eye, musculus orbicularis oculi.
orbicular muscle of mouth, musculus orbicularis oris.
orbicularis oculi muscle, musculus orbicularis oculi.
orbicularis oris muscle, musculus orbicularis oris.
orbital muscle, orbitalis muscle, musculus orbitalis.
organic muscle, visceral m.
muscles of palate and fauces, see musculi palati mollis et faucium.
palatine muscles, musculi palati mollis et faucium.
palatoglossus muscle, musculus palatoglossus.
palatopharyngeal muscle, palatopharyngeus muscle, musculus palatopharyngeus.
palmar muscle, long, musculus palmaris longus.
palmar muscle, short, musculus palmaris brevis.
palmaris brevis muscle, musculus palmaris brevis.
palmaris longus muscle, musculus palmaris longus.
papillary muscles, musculi papillares.
papillary muscle of conus arteriosus, a septal papillary muscle arising near the septal end of the supraventricular crest and attached to the anterior and septal cusps of the tricuspid valve.
papillary muscle of left ventricle, anterior, musculus papillaris anterior ventriculi sinistri.
papillary muscle of left ventricle, posterior, musculus papillaris posterior ventriculi sinistri.
papillary muscle of right ventricle, anterior, musculus papillaris anterior ventriculi dextri.
papillary muscle of right ventricle, posterior, musculus papillaris posterior ventriculi dextri.
papillary muscles of right ventricle, septal, several small papillary muscles in the right ventricle of the heart, arising from the interventricular septum and attaching to adjacent cusps of the tricuspid valve via chordae tendineae.
pectinate muscles of left atrium, musculi pectinati atrii sinistri.
pectinate muscles of right atrium, musculi pectinati atrii dextri.
pectineal muscle, pectineus muscle, musculus pectineus.
pectoral muscle, greater, musculus pectoralis major.
pectoral muscle, smaller, musculus pectoralis minor.
pectoralis major muscle, musculus pectoralis major.
pectoralis minor muscle, musculus pectoralis minor.
muscles of pelvic diaphragm, musculi diaphragmatis pelvis.
pennate muscle, penniform muscle, musculus pennatus.
perineal muscles, muscles of perineum, musculi perinei.
peroneal muscle, long, musculus fibularis longus.
peroneal muscle, short, musculus fibularis brevis.
peroneal muscle, third, musculus fibularis tertius.
pharyngeal muscles, musculi pharyngis.
pharyngopalatine muscle, musculus palatopharyngeus.
Phillips muscle, a muscular slip from the radial collateral ligament of the wrist and the styloid process of the radius to the phalanges.
piriform muscle, piriformis muscle, musculus piriformis.
plantar muscle, plantaris muscle, musculus plantaris.
platysma muscle, see platysma.
pleuroesophageal muscle, pleuroesophageus muscle, musculus pleurooesophageus.
popliteal muscle, popliteus muscle, musculus popliteus.
postaxial muscle, a muscle on the dorsal side of a limb.
preaxial muscle, a muscle on the ventral side of a limb.
procerus muscle, musculus procerus.
pronator muscle, quadrate, musculus pronator quadratus.
pronator muscle, round, musculus pronator teres.
pronator quadratus muscle, musculus pronator quadratus.
pronator teres muscle, musculus pronator teres.
psoas muscle, greater, musculus psoas major.
psoas muscle, smaller, musculus psoas minor.
psoas major muscle, musculus psoas major.
psoas minor muscle, musculus psoas minor.
pterygoid muscle, external, musculus pterygoideus lateralis.
pterygoid muscle, internal, musculus pterygoideus medialis.
pterygoid muscle, lateral, musculus pterygoideus lateralis.
pterygoid muscle, medial, musculus pterygoideus medialis.
pterygopharyngeal muscle, pars pterygopharyngea musculi constrictoris pharyngis superioris.
puboanal muscle, puboanalis muscle, musculus puboanalis.
pubococcygeal muscle, pubococcygeus muscle, musculus pubococcygeus.
puboperineal muscle, puboperinealis muscle, musculus puboperinealis.
puboprostatic muscle, puboprostaticus muscle, musculus puboprostaticus.
puborectal muscle, puborectalis muscle, musculus puborectalis.
pubovaginal muscle, pubovaginalis muscle, musculus pubovaginalis.
pubovesical muscle, pubovesicalis muscle, musculus pubovesicalis.
pyloric sphincter muscle, musculus sphincter pyloricus.
pyramidal muscle, musculus pyramidalis.
pyramidal muscle of auricle, musculus pyramidalis auriculae.
pyramidalis muscle, musculus pyramidalis.
quadrate muscle, musculus quadratus.
quadrate muscle of sole, musculus quadratus plantae.
quadrate muscle of thigh, quadratus femoris muscle, musculus quadratus femoris.
quadratus lumborum muscle, musculus quadratus lumborum.
quadratus plantae muscle, musculus quadratus plantae.
quadriceps femoris muscle, quadriceps muscle of thigh, musculus quadriceps femoris.
rectococcygeal muscle, rectococcygeus muscle, musculus rectococcygeus.
rectourethral muscles, musculi anorectoperineales.
rectouterine muscle, rectouterinus muscle, musculus rectouterinus.
rectovesical muscle, rectovesicalis muscle, musculus rectovesicalis.
rectus abdominis muscle, musculus rectus abdominis.
rectus capitis anterior muscle, musculus rectus capitis anterior.
rectus capitis lateralis muscle, musculus rectus capitis lateralis.
rectus capitis posterior major muscle, musculus rectus capitis posterior major.
rectus capitis posterior minor muscle, musculus rectus capitis posterior minor.
rectus muscle of eyeball, inferior, musculus rectus inferior bulbi.
rectus muscle of eyeball, lateral, musculus rectus lateralis bulbi.
rectus muscle of eyeball, medial, musculus rectus medialis bulbi.
rectus muscle of eyeball, superior, musculus rectus superior bulbi.
rectus femoris muscle, musculus rectus femoris.
red muscle, the darker-colored muscle tissue of some mammals, composed of slow twitch muscle fibers. Called also slow m. Cf. white m.
Reisseisen muscles, the smooth muscle fibers of the smallest bronchi.
rhomboid muscle, greater, musculus rhomboideus major.
rhomboid muscle, lesser, musculus rhomboideus minor.
rhomboid major muscle, musculus rhomboideus major.
rhomboid minor muscle, musculus rhomboideus minor.
rider's muscles, the adductor muscles of the thigh.
Riolan muscle, ciliary bundle of pars palpebralis musculi orbicularis oculi.musculus cremaster.
risorius muscle, musculus risorius.
rotator muscles, musculi rotatores.
rotator muscles, long, musculi rotatores longi.
rotator muscles, short, musculi rotatores breves.
rotator muscles of neck, musculi rotatores cervicis.
rotator muscles of thorax, musculi rotatores thoracis.
rotatores muscles, musculi rotatores.
rotatores cervicis muscles, musculi rotatores cervicis.
rotatores lumborum muscles, musculi rotatores lumborum.
rotatores thoracis muscles, musculi rotatores thoracis.
Rouget muscle, the circular portion of the ciliary muscle.
Ruysch muscle, the muscular tissue of the fundus uteri.
sacrococcygeal muscle, anterior, musculus sacrococcygeus ventralis.
sacrococcygeal muscle, dorsal, musculus sacrococcygeus dorsalis.
sacrococcygeal muscle, posterior, musculus sacrococcygeus dorsalis.
sacrococcygeal muscle, ventral, musculus sacrococcygeus ventralis.
sacrospinal muscle, musculus erector spinae.
salpingopharyngeal muscle, salpingopharyngeus muscle, musculus salpingopharyngeus.
Santorini muscle, musculus risorius.
sartorius muscle, musculus sartorius.
scalene muscle, anterior, musculus scalenus anterior.
scalene muscle, middle, musculus scalenus medius.
scalene muscle, posterior, musculus scalenus posterior.
scalene muscle, smallest, musculus scalenus minimus.
scalenus anterior muscle, musculus scalenus anterior.
scalenus medius muscle, musculus scalenus medius.
scalenus minimus muscle, musculus scalenus minimus.
scalenus posterior muscle, musculus scalenus posterior.
Sébileau muscle, the deeper fibers of the musculus dartos.
semimembranosus muscle, semimembranous muscle, musculus semimembranosus.
semipennate muscle, musculus semipennatus.
semispinal muscle, musculus semispinalis.
semispinal muscle of head, musculus semispinalis capitis.
semispinal muscle of neck, musculus semispinalis cervicis.
semispinal muscle of thorax, musculus semispinalis thoracis.
semispinalis muscle, musculus semispinalis.
semispinalis capitis muscle, musculus semispinalis capitis.
semispinalis cervicis muscle, musculus semispinalis cervicis.
semispinalis thoracis muscle, musculus semispinalis thoracis.
semitendinosus muscle, semitendinous muscle, musculus semitendinosus.
serratus muscle, anterior, musculus serratus anterior.
serratus muscle, inferior posterior, musculus serratus posterior inferior.
serratus muscle, superior posterior, musculus serratus posterior superior.
serratus anterior muscle, musculus serratus anterior.
serratus posterior inferior muscle, musculus serratus posterior inferior.
serratus posterior superior muscle, musculus serratus posterior superior.
Sibson muscle, musculus scalenus minimus.
skeletal muscle, any of the striated muscles that are attached to bones and typically cross at least one joint; they are under voluntary control and facilitate movement of the skeleton.
slow muscle, red m.
smooth muscle, smooth involuntary muscle, a type of muscle without transverse striations in its constituent fibers; it is found in the walls of the viscera and blood vessels and in the dermis and is not under voluntary control. See muscle and see Plate 35.
muscles of soft palate and fauces, musculi palati mollis et faucium.
soleus muscle, musculus soleus.
somatic muscle, skeletal m.
sphincter muscle, musculus sphincter.
sphincter muscle of anus, external, musculus sphincter ani externus.
sphincter muscle of anus, internal, musculus sphincter ani internus.
sphincter muscle of bile duct, musculus sphincter ductus choledochi.
sphincter muscle of female urethra, external, musculus sphincter urethrae externus urethrae femininae.
sphincter muscle of hepatopancreatic ampulla, musculus sphincter ampullae hepatopancreaticae.
sphincter muscle of male urethra, external, sphincter muscle of membranous urethra, musculus sphincter urethrae externus urethrae masculinae.
sphincter muscle of pancreatic duct, musculus sphincter ductus pancreatici.
sphincter muscle of pupil, musculus sphincter pupillae.
sphincter muscle of pylorus, musculus sphincter pyloricus.
sphincter muscle of urethra, sphincter urethrae muscle, see musculus sphincter urethrae externus urethrae femininae and musculus sphincter urethrae externus urethrae masculinae.
sphincter muscle of urethra, internal, sphincter muscle of urinary bladder, musculus sphincter urethrae internus.
sphincter urethrovaginalis muscle, musculus sphincter urethrovaginalis.
spinal muscle, musculus spinalis.
spinal muscle of head, musculus spinalis capitis.
spinal muscle of neck, musculus spinalis cervicis.
spinal muscle of thorax, musculus spinalis thoracis.
spinalis muscle, musculus spinalis.
spinalis capitis muscle, musculus spinalis capitis.
spinalis cervicis muscle, musculus spinalis cervicis.
spinalis thoracis muscle, musculus spinalis thoracis.
splenius capitis muscle, musculus splenius capitis.
splenius cervicis muscle, musculus splenius cervicis.
splenius muscle of head, musculus splenius capitis.
splenius muscle of neck, musculus splenius cervicis.
stapedius muscle, musculus stapedius.
sternal muscle, sternalis muscle, musculus sternalis.
sternocleidomastoid muscle, musculus sternocleidomastoideus.
sternohyoid muscle, musculus sternohyoideus.
sternomastoid muscle, musculus sternocleidomastoideus.
sternothyroid muscle, musculus sternothyroideus.
strap muscles, musculi infrahyoidei.
striated muscle, striped muscle, a muscle whose fibers are divided by transverse bands into striations, including cardiac and skeletal muscle; the term is often used as a synonym for skeletal muscle. See muscle and see Plate 35.
striated involuntary muscle, cardiac m.
striated voluntary muscle, skeletal m.
styloglossus muscle, musculus styloglossus.
stylohyoid muscle, musculus stylohyoideus.
stylopharyngeal muscle, stylopharyngeus muscle, musculus stylopharyngeus.
subclavius muscle, musculus subclavius.
subcostal muscles, subcostales muscles, musculi subcostales.
suboccipital muscles, musculi suboccipitales.
subscapular muscle, subscapularis muscle, musculus subscapularis.
subvertebral muscles, hypaxial m's.
supinator muscle, musculus supinator.
suprahyoid muscles, musculi suprahyoidei.
supraspinatus muscle, supraspinous muscle, musculus supraspinatus.
suspensory muscle of duodenum, musculus suspensorius duodeni.
synergic muscles, synergistic muscles, muscles that assist one another in action.
tarsal muscle, inferior, musculus tarsalis inferior.
tarsal muscle, superior, musculus tarsalis superior.
temporal muscle, temporalis muscle, musculus temporalis.
temporoparietal muscle, temporoparietalis muscle, musculus temporoparietalis.
tensor muscle of fascia lata, tensor fasciae latae muscle, musculus tensor fasciae latae.
tensor tympani muscle, tensor muscle of tympanic membrane, musculus tensor tympani.
tensor veli palatini muscle, tensor muscle of velum palatinum, musculus tensor veli palatini.
teres major muscle, musculus teres major.
teres minor muscle, musculus teres minor.
muscle of terminal notch, musculus incisurae terminalis.
Theile muscle, musculus transversus perinei superficialis.
thenar muscles, the abductor and flexor muscles of the thumb.
thyroarytenoid muscle, musculus thyroarytenoideus.
thyroepiglottic muscle, pars thyroepiglottica musculi thyroarytenoidei.
thyrohyoid muscle, musculus thyrohyoideus.
thyropharyngeal muscle, pars thyropharyngea musculi constrictoris pharyngis inferioris.
tibial muscle, anterior, musculus tibialis anterior.
tibial muscle, posterior, musculus tibialis posterior.
tibialis anterior muscle, musculus tibialis anterior.
tibialis posterior muscle, musculus tibialis posterior.
muscles of tongue, musculi linguae.
tracheal muscle, trachealis muscle, musculus trachealis.
trachelomastoid muscle, musculus longissimus capitis.
tragicus muscle, muscle of tragus, musculus tragicus.
transverse abdominal muscle, musculus transversus abdominis.
transverse muscle of auricle, musculus transversus auriculae.
transverse muscle of chin, musculus transversus menti.
transverse muscle of nape, musculus transversus nuchae.
transverse perineal muscle, deep, musculus transversus perinei profundus.
transverse perineal muscle, superficial, musculus transversus perinei superficialis.
transverse muscle of thorax, musculus transversus thoracis.
transverse muscle of tongue, musculus transversus linguae.
transversospinal muscles, transversospinales muscles, musculi transversospinales.
transversus abdominis muscle, musculus transversus abdominis.
transversus menti muscle, musculus transversus menti.
transversus nuchae muscle, musculus transversus nuchae.
transversus thoracis muscle, musculus transversus thoracis.
trapezius muscle, musculus trapezius.
muscle of Treitz, musculus suspensorius duodeni.
triangular muscle, musculus triangularis.
triceps muscle of arm, triceps brachii muscle, musculus triceps brachii.
triceps muscle of calf, triceps surae muscle, musculus triceps surae.
trigonal muscles, musculi trigoni vesicae urinariae.
trigonal muscle, deep, musculus trigoni vesicae urinariae profundus.
trigonal muscle, superficial, musculus trigoni vesicae urinariae superficialis.
unipennate muscle, musculus semipennatus.
unstriated muscle, smooth m.
muscles of upper limb, musculi membri superioris.
muscles of urogenital diaphragm, the muscles considered to participate in the urogenital diaphragm (see under diaphragm).
muscle of uvula, musculus uvulae.
vastus intermedius muscle, musculus vastus intermedius.
vastus lateralis muscle, musculus vastus lateralis.
vastus medialis muscle, musculus vastus medialis.
vertical muscle of tongue, musculus verticalis linguae.
vestigial muscle, a muscle that was once well developed but through evolution has become rudimentary.
visceral muscle, muscle fibers associated chiefly with the hollow viscera and largely of splanchnic mesodermal origin; except for the striated fibers in the wall of the heart, they are smooth muscle fibers bound together by reticular fibers.
vocal muscle, vocalis muscle, musculus vocalis.
voluntary muscle, any muscle that normally is under the control of the will, i.e., a skeletal muscle (q.v.).
white muscle, the paler-colored muscle tissue of some mammals, composed of fast twitch muscle fibers. Called also fast m. Cf. red m.
Wilson muscle, see musculus sphincter urethrae externus urethrae femininae and musculus sphincter urethrae externus urethrae masculinae.
yoked muscles, muscles that normally act simultaneously and equally, as in moving the eyes.
zygomatic muscle, zygomatic muscle, greater, musculus zygomaticus major.
zygomatic muscle, lesser, musculus zygomaticus minor.
zygomaticus major muscle, musculus zygomaticus major.
zygomaticus minor muscle, musculus zygomaticus minor.
 

Functions of muscles

The main function of muscles is for motion, for example in conjunction with bones for walking. Muscles may work alone e.g. the diaphragm for breathing, and the heart for circulating blood.

 


Characteristics of muscle tissue

 


Types of muscles

Different types of muscle respond, contract, and relax at different rates.

Skeletal muscles are striated (have distinct bands) made up of fibres (long cells). The cells are multinucleated (many cell nuclei) and contract and relax quickly. These are voluntary muscles attached to the skeleton that help to move the bones. There are nearly 700 skeletal muscles spread all over the body.

Visceral muscles are smooth and without banding. They have short fibres and single cell nuclei. These are involuntary muscles e.g. found in walls of blood vessels and viscera (organs in the abdominal cavity).

Cardiac muscles are striated (but less distinct than skeletal muscles), and are involuntary .

 


Examples of muscles

The diaphram is the major muscle for breathing (respiration). The diaphragm is located in the rib cage below the lungs. It is a dome shaped muscle that pulls / pushes air in and out of the lungs. 'Hiccups' are a spasm of the diaphragm.

Intercostals also aid respiration Inter- (between) Costals (ribs). Internal intercostals lift the ribs during respiration, whilst external intercostals draw the ribs together during expiration to lessen the volume of the rib cage and thoracic cavity to push air out of the lungs.

Biceps and triceps are antagonist (have the opposite functions). Triceps (with three 'heads') extend the forearm so it can be held straight, while biceps (two 'heads') flex the forearm and draw it up.

Tendons connect muscles to the bone, these are formed from the connective tissue that cover the muscle. They are dense white cords of tissue which are strong and flexible, they serve to anchor muscles to the bone. Types of muscles and movement

 


Muscle movements

Most movements involve several skeletal muscles working together. Most skeletal muscles are arranged in opposing pairs at joints, for example one muscle tightens up while the other extends.

Flexors tighten to decrease the angle of a joint
Extensors relax to increase the angle of a joint

Abductors move a bone away from the midline
Adductors move a bone toward the midline

Levators make an upward movement
Depressors make a downward movement

Supinators turn the palm upwards or inwards
Pronators turn the palm downwards or outwards

Sphincters decrease the size of an opening

Tensors makes part of the body more rigid

Rotators moves a bone around

 


Roots, suffixes, and prefixes

component meaning example
SARC- tissue sarcoma = tumour of supportive tissues (muscle, bone etc.)
INTRA- into intramuscular injection = injection into a muscle
MYO- muscle myocardium = heart muscle
BI- two biceps = muscles with two heads
TRI- three triceps = muscles with three heads

 


Cancer Focus

 

Rhabdomyosarcoma
 
Rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant tumour of striated muscle found in children and young adults. Rhabdomyosarcoma accounts for about two thirds of childhood soft tissue sarcomas. There are 3 broad histological sub-types:
  1. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma occurs maily in infants and young children, usually arising in the head, neck or genitourinary system (especially the testis, prostate, vagina, and bladder).
  2. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is most common in adolescents and young adults, mostly found in peripheral muscles.
  3. Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma is most common in adults, usually found in the muscles of the extremities in adults.
Internet Resources for Rhabdomyosarcoma

 

Other types of Soft Tissue Sarcoma
 
Other types of cancer affecting muscles and soft tissues in children include:
fibrosarcoma (begins in fibrous tissue in the arms and legs)
neurofibrosarcoma (begins in nerves near the surface of arms, legs, and trunk)
leiomyosarcoma (muscles in the trunk)
liposarcoma (begins in fat in the arms and legs)
synovial sarcoma (begins in linings of joint cavities and tendon sheaths)
hemangiopericytoma (begins in blood vessels in the arms, legs, trunk, head,and neck).
alveolar soft part sarcoma (begins in nerves of the muscles in the arms and legs)
malignant fibrous histiocytoma (begins in fibrous tissue).
Internet Resources for Soft Tissue Sarcoma

 

Potential Side Effects of Radiotherapy on Muscles
 
Muscles can be damaged by radiotherapy which can cause fibrosis, muscle shortening and atrophy. Any potential side effects will depend on the site of the tumour, the patients age, and the dose of radiotherapy. For example high dose radiotherapy in may result in footdrop which is a condition where the anterior muscles of the leg are paralysed. Second malignancies particularly fibrosarcomas can also develop in previously irradiated sites.

Related Abbreviations and Acronyms:

 

 
ARMS Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma
IM Intramuscular - into a muscle
MPNST Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour
NRSTS Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcoma
RMS Rhabdomyosarcoma

More Cancer Related Abbreviations