LIVER

1. a large gland of a dark red color found in the upper part of the abdomen on the right side. Its domed upper surface fits closely against and is adherent to the inferior surface of the right diaphragmatic dome, and it has a double blood supply from the hepatic artery and the portal vein. Its traditional anatomic divisions have been four lobes, the left lobe(lobus hepatis sinister), right lobe(lobus hepatis dexter), caudate lobe(lobus caudatus hepatis), and quadrate lobe(lobus quadratus hepatis). Based on the internal blood supply and biliary drainage, a newer anatomic system divides the liver into three regions, the left liver, (pars hepatis sinistra), right liver(pars hepatis dextra), and posterior liver(pars posterior hepatis), with the latter being identical to the caudate lobe. The liver is made up of thousands of minute lobules (see lobuli hepatis), which are its functional units. Among its many functions are the storage and filtration of blood, secretion of bile, excretion of bilirubin and other substances formed elsewhere in the body, and numerous metabolic functions, including the conversion of sugars into glycogen, which it stores. Called also hepar[TA].

2. the same gland of certain animals, sometimes used as food or from which pharmaceutical products are prepared.
 

albuminoid liver, amyloid liver, one with amyloid degeneration; called also waxy l.
fatty liver, one with fatty infiltration, such as from alcohol abuse, jejunoileal bypass surgery, or occasionally diabetes mellitus. Fat is in large droplets and the liver is enlarged but of normal consistency; patients are often asymptomatic, but the condition can progress to hepatitis or cirrhosis if the underlying cause is not removed.
floating liver, wandering l.
foamy liver, one with gas bubbles from anaerobic bacteria, seen post mortem.
frosted liver, perihepatitis chronica hyperplastica.
hobnail liver, one whose surface is marked by naillike points as a result of cirrhosis.
icing liver, perihepatitis chronica hyperplastica.
left liver, pars hepatis sinistra.
nutmeg liver, one having a mottled appearance when cut, as a result of congestion.
pigmented liver, one discolored by pigment, such as in the Dubin-Johnson syndrome.
polycystic liver, one with multiple cysts; see polycystic liver disease, under disease.
posterior liver, pars posterior hepatis.
right liver, pars hepatis dextra.
shock liver, hepatic ischemia.
wandering liver, a displaced and movable liver; called also floating l.
waxy liver, amyloid l.