articular joint surface
apophyseal fragments torn from bone
avulsion tearing or pulling of a ligament
blow-out of orbital floor
boxer metacarpal neck
bucket-handle tear in cartilage - loop in intercondylar notch
burst-axial compression vertebra - usually spinal injury
butterfly looks like butterfly - comminuted fracture - 2 fragments on both sides main fracture
buttonhole-perforating  perforated by a missle
chisel head of radius - piece detaches
cleavage shelling off cartilage by small fragments
closed no open wound in skin
Colles displaces fragments - low end of radius
comminuted splintered or crushed
complete entirely broken
complicated injury adjacent to bones
compound open fractures
compression resulting from compression
condylar humerus - small fragments and condyle seperated from bone
dislocation near joint displacement
greenstick hickorystick one side broken other side bent
hangman's axis c2 through
impacted one fragment forced through another
indirect distant point of injury
insufficiency bone is of decreased deficiency
intra-articular within a joint
intracapsular within capsule of a joint
intrauterine fetal bone in utero
Le Fort I,II,III - maxilla
linear along length
longitudinal lengthwise direction
oblique slanted or inclined direction
open external wound - bone protrudes through skin
simple closed
spiral fracture-torsion bone twisted apart
torsion-spiral fracture bone twisted apart
spontaneous result from longstanding non-traumatic disease
stress distant point of injury
subcapital just below head of the bone
torus localized expansion of cortex - little or no displacement to lower end of bone
transverse occurs @ right angle to axis of bone
tuft distal phalanx - splintered fracture


scheuermann disease affects bone formation of vertebra
scoliosis sideways curvature of spine
achondroplasia cartilage and bone formation - hereditary disorder
ankylosing spondylitis rheumatoid arthritis of spine
arthritis inflammation of joints
inflammation inflammation of joints
rheumatoid most common arthritis
chondrosarcoma malignant tumor of cartilage
degenerative joint disease deterioration of articular cartilage
Ewing tumor malignant tumor on the shaft of bone
sarcoma malignant tumor
gout disease deposition of urate crystals
Hurler syndrome irregular formation of bone - overproduction of mucopolysaccharides (enlarged organs)
mucopolysaccharides enlarged organs
hypophosphatasia deficiency alkaline phosphatase
alkaline phosphatase alkaline metal, sodium or potassium
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease loss blood supply in head of femur
marfan syndrome abnormal formation of connective tissue
multiple myeloma most common bone neoplasm - tumor derived from blood cells
Osgood-Schlatter disease affects tibial tubercle - where patella tibia connect
osteochondritis dissecans involving joints
osteochondrosis adolescence developmental disorder affecting center bone formation
osteogenisis imperfecta abnormal formation of connective tissue
osteoid, osteoma benign lesion
osteomalacia softening of bone
osteomyelitis fungal bacteria infection of bone
Staphylococcus aureus bacterial infection of bone
osteoporosis occurs with adequate bone density
kyphosis forward hunching of the spine
Paget disease degenerative disorder of bone - softening and swelling of bone
psoriatic arthritis chronic skin disease
Reiter syndrome nonbacterial urethritis lesions
rickets overgrowth poorly mineralized bones and enlarged marrow cavities in infants


bone1. the hard form of connective tissue that constitutes the majority of the skeleton of most vertebrates; it consists of an organic component (the cells and matrix) and an inorganic, or mineral, component; the matrix contains a framework of collagenous fibers and is impregnated with the mineral component, chiefly calcium phosphate (85 per cent) and calcium carbonate (10 per cent), which imparts the quality of rigidity to bone. Called also osseous tissue. 2. any distinct piece of the osseous framework, or skeleton, of the body; called also os. See Plates 10 and 45.

accessory bone, an occasionally occurring bone or ossicle adjoining one of the bones of the carpus or of the tarsus; recognized in the radiograph.
acetabular bone,
acromial bone, acromion.
alar bone, os sphenoidale.
Albers-Schönberg marble bones, osteopetrosis.
Albrecht bone, basiotic b.
alisphenoid bone, ala major ossis sphenoidalis.
alveolar bone, the thin layer of bone making up the bony processes of the maxilla and mandible, and surrounding and containing the teeth; it is pierced by many small openings through which blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerve fibers pass. See also alveolar process.
ankle bone, talus.
astragaloid bone, talus.
astragaloscaphoid bone, Pirie b.
back bone, columna vertebralis.
basal bone, the relatively fixed and unchangeable framework of the mandible and maxilla, which limits the extent to which teeth can be moved in the alveolar or supporting bone if the occlusion is to remain stable.
basihyal bone, corpus ossis hyoidei.
basilar bone, basioccipital bone, a bone developing from a separate ossification center in the fetus, which becomes the basilar part of the occipital bone.
basiotic bone, a small bone of the fetus between the basisphenoid and the basioccipital bones; called also Albrecht b.
basisphenoid bone, a bone in the floor of the cranium of the human embryo and many animal species. In humans, before birth it becomes part of the postsphenoidal part of the sphenoid bone (see under part); in most animals it persists as a separate bone between the basioccipital bone and the presphenoidal bone.
Bertin bone, concha sphenoidalis.
breast bone, sternum.
bregmatic bone, os parietale.
brittle bones, osteogenesis imperfecta.
bundle bone, one of the two types of bones composing the alveolar bone, so called because of the continuation into it of the principal fibers of the periodontal ligament. Large amounts of more calcified cementing substance render bundle bone more resistant to x-rays than surrounding bones; therefore it appears on dental radiographs as a thin radiopaque line (hence the synonym lamina dura). Called also lamellated b.
calcaneal bone, calcaneus.
calf bone, fibula.
cancellated bone, cancellous bone, substantia spongiosa ossium.
cannon bone, a bone in the limb of hoofed animals, extending from the fetlock to the hock joint in the hind leg or the fetlock to the carpus in the foreleg; equivalent to a metacarpal or metatarsal in humans.
capitate bone, os capitatum.
carpal bones, ossa carpi; see under os.
carpal bone, central, os centrale.
carpal bone, first, os trapezium.
carpal bone, fourth, os hamatum.
carpal bone, great, os capitatum.
carpal bone, intermediate, os lunatum.
carpal bone, radial, os scaphoideum.
carpal bone, second, os trapezoideum.
carpal bone, third, os capitatum.
carpal bone, ulnar, os triquetrum.
cartilage bone, any bone that develops within cartilage, in contrast to membrane bone, ossification taking place within a cartilage model; called also endochondral b., replacement b., and substitution b.
cavalry bone, rider's b.
central bone, os centrale.
chalky bones, osteopetrosis.
cheek bone, os zygomaticum.
chevron bone, the V-shaped hemal arches of the third, fourth, and fifth coccygeal vertebrae of a dog.
coccygeal bone, os coccygis.
coffin bone, the third or distal phalanx of the foot of a horse; called also pedal b. and os pedis.
collar bone, clavicula.
compact bone, substantia compacta ossium.
coronary bone, small pastern bone; see pastern b.
cortical bone, the compact bone of the shaft of a bone that surrounds the medullary cavity.
costal bone, os costale.
cranial bones, bones of cranium, ossa cranii.
cribriform bone, os ethmoidale.
cuboid bone, os cuboideum.
cuneiform bone, external, os cuneiforme laterale.
cuneiform bone, first, os cuneiforme mediale.
cuneiform bone, intermediate, os cuneiforme intermedium.
cuneiform bone, internal, os cuneiforme mediale.
cuneiform bone, lateral, os cuneiforme laterale.
cuneiform bone, medial, os cuneiforme mediale.
cuneiform bone, middle, cuneiform bone, second, os cuneiforme intermedium.
cuneiform bone, third, os cuneiforme laterale.
cuneiform bone of carpus, os triquetrum.
dermal bone, a bone developed by ossification in the skin.
bones of digits of foot, ossa digitorum pedis.
bones of digits of hand, ossa digitorum manus.
ear bones, ossicula auditus.
ectethmoid bone, labyrinthus ethmoidalis.
ectocuneiform bone, os cuneiforme laterale.
endochondral bone, cartilage b.
entocuneiform bone, os cuneiforme mediale.
epactal bone, os suturale.
epactal bone, proper, os interparietale.
ethmoid bone, os ethmoidale.
exercise bone, a bone developed in a muscle, tendon, or fascia, as a result of excessive exercise.
exoccipital bone, one of the two lateral portions of the occipital bone, developing, from separate centers of ossification, into the portions that bear the condyles.
bones of face, facial bones, the bones that constitute the facial part of the skull, including the hyoid, palatine, and zygomatic bones, the mandible, and the maxilla; many authorities also include the lacrimal and nasal bones, the inferior nasal concha, and the vomer, and exclude the hyoid bone. Called also ossa faciei and ossa facialia.
femoral bone, femur (def. 1).
fibular bone, fibula.
bones of fingers, ossa digitorum manus.
flank bone, os ilium.
flat bone, os planum.
frontal bone, os frontale.
funny bone, the region of the median condyle of the humerus where it is crossed by the ulnar nerve.
hamate bone, os hamatum.
haunch bone, os coxae.
heel bone, calcaneus.
hip bone, os coxae.
humeral bone, humerus.
hyoid bone, os hyoideum.
iliac bone, os ilium.
incarial bone, os interparietale.
incisive bone, os incisivum.
innominate bone, os coxae.
intermediate bone, os lunatum.
interparietal bone, os interparietale.
intrachondrial bone, osseous tissue occurring in cartilage matrix which has undergone calcification; found particularly in patches within the middle layer of the otic capsule. Called also globuli ossei.
irregular bone, os irregulare.
ischial bone, os ischii.
ivory bones, osteopetrosis.
jaw bone, lower, mandibula.
jaw bone, upper, maxilla.
jugal bone, os zygomaticum.
lacrimal bone, os lacrimale.
lacrimal bone, lesser, the lacrimal hamulus when it exists as a part separated from the rest of the lacrimal bone.
lamellar bone, the normal type of adult bone, organized in layers (lamellae), which may be parallel (cancellous bone) or concentrically arranged (compact bone).
lamellated bone, one of the two types of bone composing the alveolar bone, with some lamellae roughly parallel with the marrow spaces and others forming haversian systems. Cf. bundle b.
lenticular bone of hand, lentiform bone, os pisiforme.
lingual bone, os hyoideum.
long bone, os longum.
lunate bone, os lunatum.
malar bone, os zygomaticum.
marble bones, osteopetrosis.
mastoid bone, processus mastoideus ossis temporalis.
maxillary bone, maxilla.
maxilloturbinal bone, concha nasalis inferior.
membrane bone, any bone that develops within a connective tissue membrane, in contrast to cartilage bone.
mesethmoid bone, a cranial bone present in some vertebrates, forming the most anterior part of the internal base of the cranium.
mesocuneiform bone, os cuneiforme intermedium.
metacarpal bones, ossa metacarpi.
metacarpal bone, middle, metacarpal bone, third, os metacarpi tertium.
metatarsal bones, ossa metatarsi.
multangular bone, accessory, os centrale.
multangular bone, larger, os trapezium.
multangular bone, smaller, os trapezoideum.
nasal bone, os nasale.
navicular bone of foot, os naviculare.
navicular bone of hand, os scaphoideum.
nonlamellated bone, woven b.
occipital bone, os occipitale.
odontoid bone, dens axis.
orbitosphenoidal bone, ala minor ossis sphenoidalis.
palate bone, palatine bone, os palatinum.
parietal bone, os parietale.
pastern bone, either of two bones of the horse's foot just proximal to the hoof: the large pastern bone is the first phalanx and the small pastern bone (called also coronary b.) is the second phalanx.
pedal bone, coffin b.
pelvic bone, os coxae.
periosteal bone, bone that is developed directly from and beneath the periosteum.
petrosal bone, petrous bone, pars petrosa ossis temporalis.
phalangeal bones of foot, ossa digitorum pedis.
phalangeal bones of hand, ossa digitorum manus.
Pirie bone, an occasionally occurring ossicle found above the head of the talus; called also astragaloscaphoid b.
pisiform bone, os pisiforme.
plowshare bone, pygostyle.
pneumatic bone, os pneumaticum.
postsphenoid bone, postsphenoidal bone, see under part.
postulnar bone, os pisiforme.
prefrontal bone, pars nasalis ossis frontalis.
preinterparietal bone, a wormian bone sometimes observed, detached from the anterior part of the interparietal bone.
premaxillary bone, premaxilla.
presphenoid bone, presphenoidal bone, see under part.
primitive bone, woven b.
pterygoid bone, processus pterygoideus ossis sphenoidalis.
pubic bone, os pubis.
pyramidal bone, os triquetrum.
radial bone, radius (def. 2).
replacement bone, cartilage b.
resurrection bone, os sacrum.
rider's bone, a localized ossification of the inner aspect of the lower end of the tendon of the adductor muscle of the thigh (adductor tubercle), sometimes seen in horseback riders; called also cavalry b.
Riolan bones, small bones resembling wormian (sutural) bones, sometimes found in the suture between the occipital bone and the petrous portion of the temporal bone.
rostral bone, a bone supporting the apex of the nose in cattle or of the snout in pigs.
rudimentary bone, a bone that has only partially developed.
sacral bone, os sacrum.
scaphoid bone, os scaphoideum.
scaphoid bone of foot, os naviculare.
scaphoid bone of hand, os scaphoideum.
scapular bone, scapula.
semilunar bone, os lunatum.
sesamoid bones, numerous ovoid nodular bones, often small, usually found embedded within a tendon or joint capsule, principally in the hands and feet (ossa sesamoidea manus and ossa sesamoidea pedis, respectively); two sesamoid bones, the fabella and patella, are associated with the knee.

sesamoid bones of foot, ossa sesamoidea pedis.
sesamoid bones of hand, ossa sesamoidea manus.
shin bone, tibia.
short bone, os breve.
bones of skull, ossa cranii.
solid bone, substantia compacta ossium.
sphenoid bone, os sphenoidale.
sphenoturbinal bone, concha sphenoidalis.
splint bones, the reduced second and fourth metacarpal and metatarsal bones of equines.
spongy bone, substantia spongiosa ossium.
spongy bone, inferior, concha nasalis inferior.
spongy bone, superior, concha nasalis superior.
squamo-occipital bone, the squamous portion of the fetal occipital bone, including the supraoccipital and interparietal bones.
squamous bone, pars squamosa ossis temporalis.
stifle bone, the patella of the horse.
stirrup bone, stapes.
substitution bone, cartilage b.
supernumerary bone, a bone occurring in addition to the normal one, as a vertebra or a rib (cervical or lumbar rib).
suprainterparietal bone, a wormian (sutural) bone sometimes occurring at the posterior part of the sagittal suture.
supraoccipital bone, a bone developing from a separate ossification center in the fetus, which becomes the squamous part of the occipital bone below the superior nuchal line.
suprasternal bones, ossa suprasternalia.
sutural bone, os suturale.
tail bone, os coccygis.
tarsal bones, ossa tarsi.
tarsal bone, first, os cuneiforme mediale.
tarsal bone, second, os cuneiforme intermedium.
tarsal bone, third, os cuneiforme laterale.
temporal bone, os temporale.
thigh bone, femur (def. 1).
thoracic bones, ossa thoracis.
bones of toes, ossa digitorum pedis.
tongue bone, os hyoideum.
trapezium bone, os trapezium.
trapezium bone, lesser, trapezium bone of Lyser, os trapezoideum.
trapezoid bone, os trapezoideum.
trapezoid bone of Henle, processus pterygoideus ossis sphenoidalis.
trapezoid bone of Lyser, os trapezium.
triangular bone, os triquetrum.
triquetral bone, os triquetrum.
turbinate bone, highest, concha nasalis suprema.
turbinate bone, inferior, concha nasalis inferior.
turbinate bone, middle, concha nasalis media.
turbinate bone, superior, concha nasalis superior.
turbinate bone, supreme, concha nasalis suprema.
tympanic bone, pars tympanica ossis temporalis.
ulnar bone, ulna.
unciform bone, uncinate bone, os hamatum.
vesalian bone, os vesalianum pedis.
vomer bone, vomer.
whettle bones, vertebrae thoracicae.
wormian bone, os suturale.
woven bone, bony tissue found in the embryo and young children and in various pathologic conditions in adults, in which the bone fails to show the oriented arrangement of collagen fibers characteristic of lamellated bone; called also nonlamellated b. and primitive b.
xiphoid bone, processus xiphoideus.
zygomatic bone, os zygomaticum.

SKELETON - the hard framework of the animal body, especially the bony framework of the body of higher vertebrate animals; the bones of the body collectively. See Plate 45. See also endoskeleton, exoskeleton, and visceral skeleton.


appendicular skeleton, skeleton appendicula´re, the bones of the upper and lower limbs.
axial skeleton, skeleton axia´le, the bones of the cranium, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum.
cardiac skeleton, the fibrous or fibrocartilaginous framework that supports and gives attachment to the cardiac muscle fibers and valves, and the roots of the aorta and pulmonary trunk; it includes the anuli fibrosi cordis, left and right fibrous trigones, membranous part of the interventricular septum, and the infundibular tendon. Called also fibrous s. of heart.
fibrous skeleton of heart, cardiac s.
skeleton of heart, cardiac s.
skeleton mem´bri inferio´ris li´beri, pars libera membri inferioris.
skeleton mem´bri superio´ris li´beri, pars libera membri superioris.
thoracic skeleton, skeleton thora´cicus, s. thoracis.
skeleton thora´cis, skeleton of thorax: the skeletal framework enclosing the thorax, consisting of the thoracic vertebrae and intervertebral disks, the ribs and costal cartilages, and the sternum; called also rib cage and thoracic cage.
visceral skeleton, the portion of the skeleton that protects the viscera, including the sternum, ribs, pelvis, and os coxae.